Stomach Workout Routine
Several studies have obtained objective measures of abdominal muscle strength. Trunk muscle strength as measured by an isoknetic dynamometer demonstrated postoperative recovery of 92, 96, and 98 percent at 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively, for unilateral free TRAM flap patients. Although the ability of one-half of the group to perform situps was not affected, the other half demonstrated mild impairment.88 Kind and colleagues compared the recovery after pedicled and free TRAM reconstruction. Flexion torque as measured by dynamometer
Inspiration is achieved primarily by contractions of the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles. Other muscles aid in deep inspiration. Expiration is achieved primarily by elastic recoil of the thoracic cage, but the internal intercostals, abdominal muscles, and other muscles aid in deep or rapid expiration.
The distal right renal artery can be exposed through a right-sided flank incision, which is a mirror image of the incision described in the section on retroperitoneal exposure of the aorta. With the patient on the operating table in a modified left lateral decubitus position, the retroperitoneal space is entered laterally after division of the abdominal wall muscles. The peritoneum and contents are gently mobilized anteriorly and medially, including the right kidney enclosed in Gerota's fascia. The renal artery is palpated distally and carefully dissected free of surrounding tissue. The inferior vena cava is also identified and mobilized after ligation of two or three paired lumbar veins. The vena cava can be gently elevated to expose the right posterolateral aspect of the aorta. Partial aortic occlusion with a side-biting vascular clamp is employed for anastomosis of the proximal bypass graft. Thereafter, a distal end-to-end anastomosis completes renal artery revascularization.
The external abdominal oblique muscle (Figs. 1.6,1.7) is the most superficial abdominal muscle that originates from the external surfaces of the lower seven or eight ribs and interdigitates with the serratus anterior and la-tissimus dorsi muscles. Most of the muscle fibers run downward and medially, forming an aponeurosis near the lateral border of the rectus abdominis. The muscle fibers from the lower two ribs descend vertically downward to attach to the iliac crest. Muscle fibers are rarely found inferior to the line that connects the umbilicus to the anterior superior iliac spine. The vessels and nerves that supply the abdominal wall are contained in the
The seventh and eight intercostal nerves, as is the case with the rest of the intercostal nerves, divide into lateral and anterior cutaneous branches. The lateral branch further divides into anterior and posterior branches, piercing the flat abdominal muscles in the midaxillary line to reach the skin. The anterior cutaneous branches, which represent the terminal branches of the ventral rami of the intercostal nerves, pierce the rectus sheath laterally and emerge anteriorly to reach the skin. They pursue a curved course toward the lateral border of the rectus abdominis, and perforate the transverse abdo-minis to reach the internal abdominal oblique aponeurosis. After piercing the internal abdominal oblique, they run parallel to the costal margin, enter the posterior surface of the rectus abdominis to continue in its sheath to reach and supply the skin. Thoracoabdominal nerves that supply the abdominal muscles form an extensive communicating network that allows considerable overlap....
Fibers originate at L1, then emerge from the lateral border of the psoas, crossing Anatomy the lower border of the kidney, then the lateral abdominal wall. Then the nerve crosses the transverse abdominal muscle above iliac crest and passes between the transverse and oblique internal abdominal muscles. Finally two branches are given off the lateral anterior and anterior cutaneous nerves. The ilioinguinal nerve originates with fibers from T12 and L1. The motor component innervates the internal and external oblique muscles, and the transverse abdominal muscle.
To help expel abdominopelvic contents during urination, defecation, or childbirth, we often consciously or unconsciously use the Valsalva14 maneuver. This consists of taking a deep breath, holding it, and then contracting the abdominal muscles, thus using the diaphragm to help increase the pressure in the abdominal cavity.
In FSHMD, protruding scapulae (winging) (Fig. 16) may be noted by the parents of the child. There may be winging of the scapulae with the arms dependent, on arm abduction, or with arms straight against the wall. The pectoral muscles are often poorly developed and there is frank pectus excava-tum so that the chest seems to be caved-in. Due to the scapula disorder, the arms cannot be raised to shoulder level even though strength in the supraspina-ti, infraspinati, or deltoids may be normal. This may result in difficulty lifting objects, however the hands maintain function for many years. In the legs there is distal muscle weakness resulting in a scapuloperoneal syndrome. Other symptoms include difficulty with whistling, closing the eyelids, and weakness of the abdominal muscles with a positive Beevor's sign. The reflexes may be either preserved or absent if muscle weakness is severe. About 10 of adults lose the ability to walk and are in wheelchairs, although in general most adult...
The posterior fibers of the internal abdominal oblique muscles that gain origin from the iliac crest extend upward and laterally to the inferior border of the lower three or four ribs, continuing with the internal intercostal muscles. They become aponeurotic towards the midline and contribute to the formation of the linea alba by joining the aponeurosis of the flat abdominal muscles of the same and opposite side.
Caused by filling of the stomach or ileum, respectively) as well as voluntary contraction of the abdominal musculature, may initiate defecation by filling the rectum with colonic contents. The increasing intrarec-tal pressure stimulates the distension receptors in the puborectalis muscle and the parapuborectal tissues, and desire to pass stool is consciously felt. At the same time, a reflex relaxation of the internal anal sphincter occurs. This allows even the smallest amounts of stool to reach the anal canal. The hypersensitive mucosa of the anal canal is able to distinguish the difference between flatus and liquid or solid stool. The reflex contraction of the external anal sphincter and the puborectalis will prevent expulsion of stool from the anal canal and thus inhibit fecal soiling. This effect is increased by the compression of the lower anal canal by the engorged hemorrhoidal vessels of the rectum and the corrugator muscle of the anus. This allows the rectum time to adapt...
The cremasteric branch of the inferior epigastric artery supplies the cremasteric muscle and other coverings of the spermatic cord as well as the testis through its anastomosis with the testicular artery. In the female, it provides blood supply to the round ligament. The pubic branch descends posterior to the pubis, supplies the parietal peritoneum and anterior abdominal muscles, forming an anastomosis with branches of the lumbar, circumflex iliac, and the obturator arteries. In one-third of individuals, the pubic branch may be replaced by the obturator artery. The pubic branch forms an anastomosis with and supplies the parietal peritoneum and anterior abdominal muscles. The cutaneous branches establish anastomoses with the superficial epigastric artery and supply the skin of the lower abdomen and the adjacent part of the aponeurosis of the external abdominal oblique.
Nine pairs of these course around the posterior aspect of the rib cage between the ribs and then anastomose with the anterior intercostal arteries (see following). They supply the skin and subcutaneous tissue, breasts, spinal cord and meninges, and the pectoralis, intercostal, and some abdominal muscles.
The musculophrenic artery, a terminal branch of the internal thoracic artery, runs inferiorly and laterally posterior to the seventh to ninth costal cartilages and gives rise to the lower two anterior intercostal arteries to the corresponding intercostal spaces. It supplies the pericardium and anterior abdominal muscles, anastomosing with the deep circumflex iliac and the lower two posterior intercostal arteries.
Uremic and hepatic), remote effects of cancer (e.g., infantile myoclonus associated with neuroblastoma), exposure to drugs or toxins (e.g., levodopa, lead, mercury, strychnine, methylphenidate, and amphetamines), and a variety of other disorders. Negative myoclonus, or asterixis, manifests as a sudden loss of postural tone, and has been described in various metabolic or toxic encephalopathies and in certain diencephalic lesions. Segmental or spinal myoclonus is characterized by a rhythmic contraction of a group of muscles in a particular segment, such as an arm, a leg, or the abdominal muscles. Examples include palatal myoclonus, ocular myoclonus, and hiccups. Palatal myoclonus has been described in patients with lesions involving the dentato-rubro-olivary pathway (Mollaret triangle) (Sathornsumetee and Stacy in press). Video Segment 19
Be very aware of your posture as you sit and walk, and keep your head up and your spine straight. Keeping your shoulders back and your abdominal muscles pulled in will also increase your back muscle strength to support your spine. You can do some gentle arm and shoulder exercises when you are sitting but use pain as your guide. If just lifting a teacup causes pain, then activities using the arms and shoulders may need to be avoided for a while. Some experts suggest partial squat exercises, which help to increase the strength of your thigh muscles, without causing additional stress on the spine.
Laryngospasm reduces ventilation and may lead to apnea. This is followed by rigidity of the axial musculature, with predominant involvement of the neck, back muscles (opisthotonus-arched back), and abdominal muscles. Paroxysmal, violent contractions of the involved muscles (reflex spasms) appear repet
Since the lower five intercostal nerves and branches of the first lumbar spinal segment innervate the skin, muscles and also the parietal peritoneum, peritonitis may stimulate these nerves, thereby producing pain, involuntary spasmodic contraction of all abdominal muscles, and palpable rigidity (guarding). These important manifestations signify inflammation of the parietal peritoneum.
So pursue a much shorter path, passing only through the superficial inguinal ring. The hernial sac appears above and medial to the pubic tubercle. Herniation that follows the entire length of the inguinal canal is an indirect inguinal hernia it commonly results from persistent processus vaginalis and therefore is known as an indirect (congenital) inguinal hernia. The Hessert's triangle, formed by the intersection of the aponeurosis of the internal oblique and transverse aponeuroses and the rectus sheath, may play an important role in the etiology of the inguinal hernia 49 . This triangle maybe occluded upon contraction of the abdominal muscles and by their movement toward the inguinal ligament. However, when a larger triangle exists, the occlusion cannot be complete, a condition that leads to hernia-tion.
Figure 10.15 Thoracic and Abdominal Muscles. (a) Superficial muscles. The left rectus sheath is cut away to expose the rectus abdominis muscle. (b) Deep muscles. On the anatomical right, the external abdominal oblique has been removed to expose the internal abdominal oblique and the pectoralis major has been removed to expose the pectoralis minor. On the anatomical left, the internal abdominal oblique has been cut to expose the transversus abdominis, and the rectus abdominis has been cut to expose the posterior rectus sheath. Figure 10.15 Thoracic and Abdominal Muscles. (a) Superficial muscles. The left rectus sheath is cut away to expose the rectus abdominis muscle. (b) Deep muscles. On the anatomical right, the external abdominal oblique has been removed to expose the internal abdominal oblique and the pectoralis major has been removed to expose the pectoralis minor. On the anatomical left, the internal abdominal oblique has been cut to expose the transversus abdominis, and the...
There are groups of muscles that act together. The rotator cuff (musculotendinous cuff) muscles stabilize the shoulder joint. These are the supraspinatus, the infraspinatus the teres minor and the subscapularis. The abdominal muscles are the rectus abdominis, the external oblique, the internal oblique, and the transversus abdominis. The quadriceps femoris group are the muscles of the anterior thigh. These are the rectus femoris, the vastus lateralis, the vastus medialis, and the vastus intermedius. The hamstrings are muscles on the posterior thigh and they consist of the biceps femoris, the semitendinosus, and the semimembranosus. There are many more functional groups of muscles but these are a few of the major ones.
A hernia is any condition in which the viscera protrude through a weak point in the muscular wall of the abdominopelvic cavity. The most common type to require treatment is an inguinal hernia. In the male fetus, each testis descends from the pelvic cavity into the scrotum by way of a passage called the inguinal canal through the muscles of the groin. This canal remains a weak point in the pelvic floor, especially in infants and children. When pressure rises in the abdominal cavity, it can force part of the intestine or bladder into this canal or even into the scrotum. This also sometimes occurs in men who hold their breath while lifting heavy weights. When the diaphragm and abdominal muscles contract, pressure in the abdominal cavity can soar to 1,500 pounds per square inch more than 100 times the normal pressure and quite sufficient to produce an inguinal hernia, or rupture. Inguinal hernias rarely occur in women.
The force exerted by the contraction of the internal abdominal oblique muscle on the margins of the deep inguinal ring may play an important role in preventing herniation. The oblique direction of the inguinal canal, the strength of the abdominal muscles, and the traction exerted by the internal oblique abdominis muscle during strenuous activity appear to compensate for weak- ness of the anterior abdominal wall. Presence of the conjoint tendon and the reflected inguinal ligament directly posterior to the superficial inguinal ring also play an important role in counteracting the weakness in the inguinal area. Contraction of the abdominal muscles forces the wall of the inguinal canal to collapse and thus act as a safety valve, preventing the occurrence of hernia in normal individuals.
The ilioinguinal nerve may be damaged in lower quadrant surgical procedures, e.g., appendectomy, resulting in a weakness of the affected abdominal muscles, and predisposition to herniation. Similarly, the course of the ilioinguinal nerve and its genital branches varies considerably, rendering them prone to injury in the repair of an inguinal hernia. A direct inguinal hernia may also develop as a result of damage to the ilioinguinal nerve and subsequent wearing down of the abdominal muscles. Entrapment 15 of the ilioinguinal nerve within the inguinal ligament (ilioinguinal syndrome) may produce debilitating chronic pain in the cutaneous area of its distribution.
Liver disposes of lactic acid generated by muscles, thus promoting recovery from fatigue Essential for chewing, swallowing, and voluntary control of defecation abdominal muscles protect lower GI organs Pressure of digestive organs against diaphragm aids in expiration when abdominal muscles contract Provides O2, removes CO2 Valsalva maneuver aids defecation
The initial treatment is medical and depends upon the consistency of the stool, as judged by digital examination. Fecoliths may need digital disimpaction and saline washouts with a large rectal tube and funnel, whereas semisolid or soft impactions can be liquefied by enemas and catheter irrigation or suppositories. Evacuation of hard feces may entail daily washouts for several days, followed by less rigorous measures on a diminishing scale (i.e., bowel washouts, irrigations, or enemas three times per week for 3 weeks, twice per week for 2 weeks, and then once per week for several weeks depending on the response). Bulk-forming agents (fruits, fresh vegetables, husks) are added to the diet on a daily basis. Routine consumption of constipating agents (e.g., soft drinks, chocolates) is to be avoided. The child is trained to attend to the toilet every day at a fixed time and spend enough time there until he is successful in evacuating the bowel by using his abdominal muscles. Medication in...
5 Easy Rules for Hard Abs
Ask the average guy to tell you how to get rock-hard abs and he will boast about the newest and fanciest, super-duper