Anterior and posterior triangles

The basic plan of the neck in cross-section. The arrows indicate the posterior triangle Pretracheal fascia Investing layer of deep fascia Sternomastoid Common carotid artery Internal jugular vein Vagus nerve Prevertebral fascia Skin and superficial fascia Trapezius The basic plan of the neck in cross-section. The arrows indicate the posterior triangle Lesser occipital Semispinalis Splenius capitis Trapezius Levator scapulae Accessory nerve Scalenus medius Thoracic duct Longus colli Long...

The mouth palate and nose

Formation Lateral Wall Nose

Fungiform papillae Filiform papillae Lingual lymphatic tissue 'Lingual tonsil' The lateral wall of the nasal cavity The lateral wall of the nasal cavity The hard palate is formed by the palatal process of the maxilla and the horizontal plate of the palatine bone. The soft palate hangs like a curtain behind the mouth cavity. Levator palati elevates the palate. Tensor palati tenses the palate. These two muscles move the soft palate so that it moves towards the back wall of the oropharynx where it...

The veins and lymphatics of the lower limb

Superficial Veins Lower Limb

The superficial veins and lymphatics of the lower limb. The arrows indicate the direction of lymph flow The superficial veins and lymphatics of the lower limb. The arrows indicate the direction of lymph flow Vein linking great and small saphenous Superficial epigastric Inguinal ligament Pubic tubercle Deep fascia of thigh Superficial external pudendal The termination of the great saphenous vein

The mediastinum IIthe vessels of the thorax

Inferior thyroid Superficial cervical Suprascapular Thyrocervical trunk Vertebral Scalenus anterior Dorsal scapular Subclavian Thyroidea ima Costocervical trunk Deep cervical Superior intercostal Upper two posterior intercostals also supply_s Bronchial Oesophageal Mediastinal The branches of the arch and the descending thoracic aorta Left brachiocephalic Right lymph duct Inferior thyroid Left internal jugular Vertebral Left subclavian Internal thoracic Left superior intercostal Posterior...

Arteries of the upper limb

Upper Limb Arteries

Subscapular Axillary nerve Circumflex scapular Ulnar artery Ulnar nerve Pisiform Common interosseous Posterior interosseous The arterial system of the upper limb. The main nerves that are related to the arteries are shown in green. Only the major arterial branches are labelled

The ankle and foot I

The ankle joint from behind, to show how the talus is held in position by ligaments between the tibia and fibula above and the calcaneus below The ankle joint from behind, to show how the talus is held in position by ligaments between the tibia and fibula above and the calcaneus below Bifurcate ligament Cuboid Cervical ligament Long plantar ligament Calcaneofibular ligament The ankle joint, lateral aspect after removal of the capsular ligament Sustentaculum tali Facet for medial malleolus...

The arteries of the abdomen

Middle Colic Artery

The abdominal aorta and its branches. Red labels ventral branches Blue labels lateral branches Green labels branches to body wall The abdominal aorta and its branches. Red labels ventral branches Blue labels lateral branches Green labels branches to body wall Superior pancreatico duodenal Right gastro-epiploic Inferior pancreatico duodenal The superior mesenteric artery and its branches The coeliac artery and its branches. The three primary branches are labelled in red Anterior and posterior...

The pelvis IIthe contents of the pelvis

Infundibulopelvic Ligament And Ure

Uterosacral ligament Endopelvic fascia External iliac vessels Round ligament The broad ligament cut off close to the uterus External iliac artery Inferior epigastric artery Ductus deferens Obliterated umbilical artery Obturator artery Attachment of levator ani Obturator nerve Iliolumbar artery Superior gluteal artery Lateral sacral artery Inferior gluteal artery Inferior vesical and middle rectal arteries

Surface anatomy of the upper limb

Surface Anatomy Landmarks Arm

The axilla with the arm fully abducted The axilla with the arm fully abducted The biceps tendon and aponeurosis which are a guide to the positions of the brachial artery and the median nerve at the elbow Strong contraction of the pectoral muscles produced by adduction The biceps tendon and aponeurosis which are a guide to the positions of the brachial artery and the median nerve at the elbow Strong contraction of the pectoral muscles produced by adduction The visible tendons at the front of the...

The pleura and airways

Apicoposterior Bronchus

The principal structures in the hilum of the lung Pulmonary artery Bronchus Pulmonary veins Lymph node Cut edge of pleura Pulmonary ligament The principal structures in the hilum of the lung The anterior relations of the trachea The anterior relations of the trachea Apical Posterior Apico-posterior Anterior Anterior basal s Lateral basal Posterior basal The respiratory tract is most often discussed in terms of upper and lower parts. The upper respiratory tract relates to the nasopharynx and...

The shoulder glenohumeral joint

The glenoid cavity and its associated ligaments and rotator cuff muscles The glenoid cavity and its associated ligaments and rotator cuff muscles Supraspinatus seen through suprascapular notch Anterior aspect of the shoulder joint Tendon of supraspinatus, blending with capsular ligament Coracohumeral ligament Opening of subscapularis bursa Subscapularis Sheath of synovial membrane Anterior aspect of the shoulder joint Type the shoulder is a synovial 'ball and socket' joint which permits...

The venous and lymphatic drainage of the upper limb and the breast

The Venous System The Upper Limb

The superficial venous system of the upper limb and two major cutaneous nerves The superficial venous system of the upper limb and two major cutaneous nerves Cephalic vein pierces clavipectoral fascia A section through the breast to show its major relations. The inset shows the radial arrangement of the lactiferous ducts Lactiferous sinus Nipple Areola -Montgomery's gland A section through the breast to show its major relations. The inset shows the radial arrangement of the lactiferous ducts...

The liver gallbladder and biliary tree

Hepatic Circulation Ivc Picture

The venous circulation through the liver. The transmission of blood from the portal system to the inferior vena cava is via the liver lobules fig. 18.2 Branch of hepatic artery Branch of portal vein a A liver lobule to show the direction of blood flow from the portal system to the centrilobular veins and thence to the inferior vena cava b The blood flow through the sinusoids of the liver lobule and the passage of bile from the bile canaliculi to the bile ducts The liver predominantly occupies...

The deep fascia of the thigh fascia lata

Fascia Cribriforma

This layer of strong fascia covers the thigh. It is attached above to the inguinal ligament and bony margins of the pelvis and below to the tibial condyles, head of the fibula and patella. Three fascial septa pass from the deep surface of the fascia lata to insert onto the linea aspera of the femur and consequently divide the thigh into three compartments. On the lateral side the fascia lata is condensed to form the iliotibial tract Fig. 47.4 . The tract is attached above to the iliac crest and...

The autonomic nervous system

Preganglionic Sympathetic Fibers

The different lengths of the pre- and postganglionic fibres of the autonomic nervous system. Preganglionic fibres red Postganglionic fibres green The sympathetic right and parasympathetic left outflows The sympathetic right and parasympathetic left outflows Preganglionic fibres Branch to blood vessels Descending branch The various possible courses of the preganglionic fibres 1, 2 amp 3 and postganglionic fibres A, B and C of the sympathetic nervous system The autonomic nervous system comprises...

The abdominal wall

Abdominal Wall Transversalis Fascia

Two muscles of the anterior abdominal wall. The external oblique on the right and the internal oblique on the left - Cut edge of external oblique Linea alba Cut edge of external oblique Internal oblique Anterior superior iliac spine Inguinal ligament Conjoint tendon Pubic tubercle The fibrous layer of superficial fascia can be likened to a pair of bathing trunks sewn to the thigh below the inguinal ligament and clinging to the penis and scrotum except for the glans Transverse sections through...

The knee joint and popliteal fossa

Oblique Popliteal Ligament

Ligamentum patellae Semitendinosus Gracilis Sartorius Knee joint, lateral aspect after removal of part of the capsular ligament Quadriceps Dotted line indicates the extent of the suprapatellar bursa Knee joint, lateral aspect after removal of part of the capsular ligament Knee joint, posterior aspect after removal of the capsular ligament Oblique popliteal ligament Posterior cruciate ligament Knee joint, posterior aspect after removal of the capsular ligament Popliteal surface of femur...

The pelvic viscera

Internal External Cervical

Uterovesical pouch Bladder Urethra Vagina Vestibule Perineal body Sagittal sections through the male and female pelves Recto-uterine pouch Posterior fornix of vagina Cervix of uterus Sphincter ani externus Anal canal Bladder Suspensory ligament Prostatic urethra Membranous urethra Sagittal sections through the male and female pelves A vertical section through the uterus and vagina. Note the relation of the uterine artery to the ureter Internal os Supravaginal cervix Cervical canal Intravaginal...

The pharynx and larynx

Pterygomandibular Ligament

Attachment of thyrohyoid Attachment of sternohyoid Inferior constrictor Cricothyroid Cricoid cartilage Superior laryngeal Internal laryngeal External laryngeal The pharynx and larynx, and some of the related nerves Left, the cricothyroid muscle and right, the posterior crico-arytenoid A midline section of the larynx to show the cricovocal membrane and vocal ligaments Arytenoid Muscular process Crico-arytenoid muscle posterior Cricoid Left, the cricothyroid muscle and right, the posterior...

The orbit and eyeball

Fissura Intra Palpebrae

Frontal Lacrimal Trochlear Oculomotor Abducent Nasociliary The back of the orbit to show the origins of the muscles that move the eyeball and the nerves that enter through the superior orbital fissure and the optic canal Central artery of retina Ophthalmic artery Oculomotor Fibrous ring The back of the orbit to show the origins of the muscles that move the eyeball and the nerves that enter through the superior orbital fissure and the optic canal The muscles that move the eyeball seen from above...

The trigeminal nerve V

Otic And Submandibular Ganglia Photo

Nasociliary Long posterior ciliary The course and branches of the ophthalmic division Parasympathetic fibres are shown in orange Supratrochlear Supraorbital Skin of face The course and branches of the ophthalmic division Parasympathetic fibres are shown in orange Lacrimal gland Ophthalmic division F. rotundum Maxillary division Mandibular division Sphenopalatine ganglion Greater palatine Lesser palatine Posterior superior dental Incisive fossa The course and branches of the maxillary division...

The arteries I

Ophthalmic Artery Anastomosis

The course and main branches of the external carotid artery. The inferior thyroid artery is also shown Maxillary Occipital Tonsillar branch Hypoglossal nerve Internal carotid External carotid Carotid sinus Superior thyroid Recurrent laryngeal nerve The course and main branches of the external carotid artery. The inferior thyroid artery is also shown Carotid angiogram showing internal carotid stenosis Carotid angiogram showing internal carotid stenosis Anterior clinoid process Central artery of...

The peritoneum

Epiploic Foramen Relations

Diaphragm Upper recess of omental bursa Liver Lesser omentum Epiploic foramen in the distance Omental bursa Pancreas Stomach Transverse mesocolon Duodenum third part Transverse colon Small intestine Mesentery Greater omentum Fusion between layers of greater omentum Fig.14.1 A vertical section through the abdomen to show the peritoneal relations. Lesser sac i Greater sac I Epiploic foramen of Winslow Portal vein Inferior vena cava Aorta Left kidney Splenic artery Lienorenal ligament Spleen Short...

The hip joint and gluteal region

Obturator Internus

Greater trochanter Pubofemoral ligament - Origins of rectus femoris Iliofemoral ligament Fat pad The structures around the acetabulum The structures around the acetabulum The hip joint Figs 46.1, 46.2 and 46.5 Type the hip is a synovial ball and socket joint. The articulation is between the rounded femoral head and the acetabulum which, like the shoulder, is deepened at its margins by a fibrocartilaginous rim the labrum acetabulare. The central and inferior parts of the acetabulum are devoid of...

Surface anatomy of the abdomen

Transtubercular Plane

Transpyloric plane Subcostal plane Level of umbilicus Transtubercular plane McBurney's point and some of the structures that may be palpated in the abdomen Gall bladder when distended Lower pole of right kidney sometimes McBurney's point Inguinal ligament Deep inguinal ring and inferior epigastric artery Liver, lower edge sometimes Linea alba Spleen, anterior notched margin when grossly enlarged Linea semilunaris lateral border of rectus External oblique aponeurosis Internal oblique A...

The axilla

Fascia Clavipectoral

Vertical and horizontal sections through the axilla the planes of the sections are shown in the central diagram Short head of biceps Coracobrachialis Lateral cord Axillary artery Medial cord Axillary vein Posterior cord Latissimus dorsi tendon Chest wall Vertical and horizontal sections through the axilla the planes of the sections are shown in the central diagram The main contents of the axilla from the front. The posterior cord is hidden behind the axillary artery The main contents of the...

SB The elbow joint and cubital fossa

Cubital Joint Capsule

The bones of the elbow joint the dotted lines represent the attachments of the capsular ligament The bones of the elbow joint the dotted lines represent the attachments of the capsular ligament Median nerve Brachial artery Medial epicondyle Flexor carpi radialis Palmaris longus Flexor carpi ulnaris Lax part of capsule Annular ligament The ligaments of the elbow joint and the superior radio-ulnarjoint The ligaments of the elbow joint and the superior radio-ulnarjoint The cubital fossa. It is...

Surface anatomy of the thorax

Surface Anatomy Oblique Fissure

The surface markings of the lungs and pleural cavities The surface markings of the lungs and pleural cavities Beginning of transverse fissure Costodiaphragmatic recess The surface markings of the heart. The areas of auscultation for the aortic, pulmonary, mitral and tricuspid valves are indicated by letters The surface markings of the heart. The areas of auscultation for the aortic, pulmonary, mitral and tricuspid valves are indicated by letters

The posterior abdominal wall

Posterior Relations The Kidney

The structures of the posterior abdominal wall The structures of the posterior abdominal wall Gonadal artery Inferior mesenteric artery The small diagram shows how the renal columns represent the cortices of adjacent fused lobes The small diagram shows how the renal columns represent the cortices of adjacent fused lobes The anterior relations of the kidneys The anterior relations of the kidneys The posterior relations of the kidneys Diaphragm Outline of pleura 12th rib Transversus abdominis...

Cranial nerves VIXII

Intracranial Course Facial Nerve

The nerve passes through the middle ear and the parotid gland The nerve passes through the middle ear and the parotid gland The spinal root of the accessory is shown in yellow Superior laryngeal Internal laryngeal VI. The abducent nerve see Fig. 56.3 leaves the brain at the posterior border of the pons and has a long intracranial course so is often the first nerve to be affected in raised intracranial pressure to the cavernous sinus, where it is closely applied to the internal carotid artery,...

The leg

Peroneus Tertius

Tibialis anterior Subcutaneous surface of tibia The extensor dorsiflexor group of muscles Superior and inferior extensor retinacula Extensor digitorum brevis Peroneus tertius The lateral side of the leg and foot Peroneus brevis Peroneus retinaculum Peroneus tertius The extensor dorsiflexor group of muscles The lateral side of the leg and foot Plantaris Gastrocnemius lateral head Peroneus brevis Peroneus longus Fibula Flexor Cross-section through the leg, to be studied in conjunction with...

Surface anatomy of the lower limb

Clavipectoral Fascia Anatomy

The anatomy of femoral and inguinal herniae. Note the relation of the deep inguinal ring to the inferior epigastric artery and the relation of the two types of hernia to the pubic tubercle Psoas tendon Pectineus Femoral hernia The anatomy of femoral and inguinal herniae. Note the relation of the deep inguinal ring to the inferior epigastric artery and the relation of the two types of hernia to the pubic tubercle Visible structures on the medial side of the lower limb Visible structures on the...

The pectoral and scapular regions

Quadrangular Space

Muscles of the scapular region and back Muscles of the scapular region and back Deltoid Cephalic vein Pectoralis major sternocostal head Coraco-brachialis Biceps Triceps medial head Serratus anterior Brachialis Biceps tendon Brachioradialis Bicipital aponeurosis Muscles of the pectoral region and upper arm Muscles of the pectoral region and upper arm The triangular and quadrangular spaces Axillary nerve and posterior circumflex humeral artery The triangular and quadrangular spaces The upper...

Portosystemic anastomoses

A number of connections occur between the portal and systemic circulations. When the direct pathway through the liver becomes congested such as in cirrhosis the pressure within the portal vein rises and under these circumstances the porto-systemic anastomoses form an alternative route for the blood to take. The sites of porto-systemic anastomosis include The lower oesophagus p. 11 formed by tributaries of the left gastric portal and oesophageal veins systemic via the azygos and hemi-azygos...

The ear and lymphatics and surface anatomy of the head and neck

Tympanic Membrane Anatomy

Ridge produced by lateral semicircular canal Tegmen tympani A diagram representing the middle ear as an opened-out box A diagram representing the middle ear as an opened-out box Greater petrosal nerve Lesser petrosal nerve Auditory tube Tympanic plexus Promontory Tympanic branch Glossopharyngeal nerve The left tympanic membrane, as seen through an auriscope. The 'cone of light' is caused by the reflection of the light of the auriscope The principal groups of lymph nodes of the head and neck...