Surface anatomy of the abdomen

Vertical line

Costal margin

Transpyloric plane Subcostal plane Level of umbilicus Transtubercular plane

Fig.22.1

The nine regions of the abdomen

Vertical line

Costal margin

Fig.22.1

The nine regions of the abdomen

Transtubercular Plane

Epigastrium

Hypochondrium

Umbilical ■

Lumbar

Suprapubic

McBurney's point and some of the structures that may be palpated in the abdomen

Gall bladder (when distended) Lower pole of right kidney (sometimes) McBurney's point Inguinal ligament

Deep inguinal ring and inferior epigastric artery

Linea Semilunaris

Liver, lower edge (sometimes) Linea alba

Spleen, anterior notched margin (when grossly enlarged)

Linea semilunaris (lateral border of rectus)

Sigmoid colon (sometimes)

External oblique aponeurosis Internal oblique

Transversus Transversalis fascia

Peritoneum

Deep ring

Superficial ring

Inguinal Canal Borders

Pubic tubercle

Fig.22.3

A horizontal section through the inguinal canal. Diagrammatic. (a) and (b) show the sites of indirect and direct herniae respectively

Spermatic cord External spermatic fascia

Internal spermatic fascia Cremasteric fascia and muscle

Lower end of rectus abdominus

Pubic tubercle

Inferior epigastric artery

Conjoint tendon

Fig.22.3

A horizontal section through the inguinal canal. Diagrammatic. (a) and (b) show the sites of indirect and direct herniae respectively

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