Surface landmarks around the ankle

• The medial and lateral malleoli are prominent at the ankle. The lateral is more elongated and descends a little further than the medial.

• When the foot is dorsiflexed the tendons of tibialis anterior, extensor hallucis longus and extensor digitorum are visible on the anterior aspect of the ankle and the dorsum of the foot.

• The tendons of peroneus longus and brevis pass behind the lateral malleolus.

• Passing behind the medial malleolus lie: the tendons of tibialis posterior and flexor digitorum longus, the posterior tibial artery and its venae comitantes, the tibial nerve and flexor hallucis longus (Fig. 52.3).

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