• The subclavian vein: begins at the outer border of the 1st rib and lies in a shallow groove on the upper surface of the rib in front of scalenus anterior. At the medial border of this muscle it is joined by the internal jugular vein to form the brachiocephalic vein. The internal jugular vein is enclosed in the carotid sheath, along with the common carotid artery and the vagus nerve. Other veins entering it accompany the small arteries but the inferior thyroid veins are solitary and run down from the lower border of the thyroid gland, in front of the trachea, to reach the left brachiocephalic vein in the thorax.
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