Superficial Fascia

The superficial fascia (Fig. 1.2) is a soft and movable layer, which comprises, to a great extent, a single variably fatty superficial layer known as Camper's fascia. The amount of fat in Camper's fascia varies depending on the nutritional status of the individual. In the male, it continues inferiorly with the dartos layer of the scrotum and outer layer of the penis and spermatic cord, where it becomes thinner, lacking adipose tissue. In the female, it continues with the superficial fascia covering the labia majora. Approximation of Camper's fascia at closure of the abdominal incision during cesarean delivery appears to prevent postoperative superficial wound disruption [8].

In the lower wall of the anterior abdomen, a deeper membranous layer known as Scarpa's fascia becomes visible [9]. This layer remains connected, thoughloose-ly, to the deep fascia that covers the aponeurosis of the external abdominal oblique muscle. The strength of the Scarpa's fascia can stabilize sutures placed when closing incisions of the abdominal wall. The space between the deep fascia that covers the external oblique and Scarpa's fascia (superficial inguinal pouch) occupied by loose connective tissue may serve as a frequent site for retracted ectopic testis in children.

Scarpa's fascia (Fig. 1.2) firmly attaches to the linea alba and symphysis pubis and forms the fundiform ligament of the penis or the clitoris. In the male, it joins the Camper's fascia and continues into the scrotum as a single smooth muscle containing a layer known as the dartos. This deep and tough collagenous layer is continuous with Colle's fascia of the perineum, and with the inferior wall of the superficial perineal pouch or recess. In the upper thigh, it is attached to the fascia lata

Internal Intercostal Muscle

Serratus Anterior Muscle

Latissimus Dorsi

External

Intercostal

Muscle

Cut Edge of the Superficial Fascia and Skin

Iliac Crest

Fig. 1.2. The two layers of the superficial fascia of the abdominal wall

Internal Intercostal Muscle

Serratus Anterior Muscle

Latissimus Dorsi

External

Intercostal

Muscle

Cut Edge of the Superficial Fascia and Skin

Iliac Crest

Fig. 1.2. The two layers of the superficial fascia of the abdominal wall

Camper Fascia And Scarpa Fascia

Skin (Cut)

Camper's

Fascia

Scarpa's Fascia

Skin (Cut)

Camper's

Fascia

Scarpa's Fascia just below and parallel to the inguinal ligament. Since the superficial perineal pouch contains the urethra, rupture of the urethra may result in extravasation of blood and urine into the superficial perineal pouch. Accumulated blood and urine in this pouch may extend into the anterior abdominal wall between Scarpa's fascia and the deep fascia covering the external oblique. Because of the firm attachment of Scarpa's fascia to the fascia lata, inferior spread of fluid is not possible. The space between the two layers of the superficial fascia allows passage of the cutaneous vessels, nerves and lymphatics of the superficial inguinal nodes.

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