Transverse Abdominis Muscle

The transverse abdominis (Figs. 1.2, 1.12-1.16) is a wide thin muscular layer that assumes a nearly hori-

Internal Intercostal Muscle

Serratus Anterior Muscle

Latissimus Dorsi

External

Intercostal

Muscle

Fig. 1.12. Transverse abdominis muscle and aponeurosis

Internal Intercostal Muscle

Serratus Anterior Muscle

Fig. 1.12. Transverse abdominis muscle and aponeurosis

Cut Edge of the Superficial Fascia and Skin

Iliac Crest

Transversospinalis Muscles

Skin (Cut)

Camper's

Fascia

Rectus

Abdominis

Muscle

Skin (Cut)

Camper's

Fascia

Cut Edge of the Superficial Fascia and Skin

Iliac Crest

Rectus

Abdominis

Muscle

Erector Spinae and Transversospinalis Muscles

Quadratus Lumborum

Fig. 1.13. Cross section of the posterolateral abdominal wall showing the external and internal abdominal oblique, transverse abdominis, and the thoracolumbar fascia

Erector Spinae and Transversospinalis Muscles

Quadratus Lumborum

Fig. 1.13. Cross section of the posterolateral abdominal wall showing the external and internal abdominal oblique, transverse abdominis, and the thoracolumbar fascia

Transverse Muscle Fascia

Internal Abdominal Oblique Muscle

External Abdominal Oblique Muscle

Internal Abdominal Oblique Muscle

External Abdominal Oblique Muscle

Sternal Angle of Louis

Xyphoid Process

Rectus Abdominis Muscle Umbilicus

Pubic Tubercle

Sternal Angle of Louis

Xyphoid Process

Rectus Abdominis Muscle Umbilicus

Pubic Tubercle

Internal Abdominal Oblique Aponeurosis

Linea Alba

Tendinous Intersections

Pubic Symphuysis

Fig. 1.14. Proximal and distal attachments of the rectus abdominis

Linea Alba the aponeurosis of the internal abdominal oblique and the external oblique to form the anterior layer of the rectus sheath. Inferior to the midpoint, the transverse aponeurosis runs posterior to the rectus abdominis and anterior to the muscle. The lower fibers of the apo-neurosis curve downward and medially and join the aponeurosis of the internal abdominal oblique at the pubic crest to form the conjoint tendon.

Tendinous Intersections

Pubic Symphuysis

Latissimus Dorsi

Internal Intercostal Muscle

Fig. 1.14. Proximal and distal attachments of the rectus abdominis

Serratus Anterior Muscle

External

Intercostal

Muscle

Fig. 1.15. Rectus abdominis muscle in relation to the transverse abdominis and superficial fascia of the abdomen zontal course deep to the internal abdominal oblique muscle. It maintains a similar origin to the internal oblique, arising from the thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest and the lateral third of the inguinal ligament. The transverse abdominis receives additional origin from the inner surface of the lower five or six ribs, partly in-terdigitating with the origin of the muscular diaphragm. This muscle may be absent or fused with the internal abdominal oblique and may contain openings filled with fascia. It becomes aponeurotic as it approaches the lateral border of the rectus abdominis, blending with the linea alba. At the level of the xiphoid process, the transverse abdominis becomes aponeurot-ic near the linea alba, allowing the muscular part to pursue a course deeper to the rectus abdominis.

Superior to the midpoint between the umbilicus and symphysis pubis (upper two-thirds), the aponeurosis of the transverse abdominis joins the anterior layer of

Internal Intercostal Muscle

Latissimus Dorsi

Serratus Anterior Muscle

External

Intercostal

Muscle

Cut Edge of the Superficial Fascia and Skin

Iliac Crest

External Abdominal Oblique

Skin (Cut)

Camper's

Fascia

Rectus

Abdominis

Muscle

Skin (Cut)

Camper's

Fascia

Cut Edge of the Superficial Fascia and Skin

Iliac Crest

Rectus

Abdominis

Muscle

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