Confabulatory Responses On The Wais

Aging patterns on the WAIS-R Picture Completion subtest showed declining mean scaled scores across the age span, with a high mean scaled score of 10.3 at ages 20-24 and a low mean scaled score of 7.4 at ages 70-74. Clinical Analysis of Picture Completion Personality integration is sometimes revealed by Picture Completion performance The pointing out of tiny gaps in the lines of the sketch, the inability to identify simple objects, or the tendency to designate them in some bi zarre scheme, all...

The Demands of the Waisiii Performance Scale

The WAIS-III subtests vary in the demands placed on motor coordination. The least motor coordination is required for Matrix Reasoning and Picture Completion (two of the three Perceptual Organization Index subtests), indicating that the POI is not very dependent on motor coordination for success, not nearly to the degree as the P-IQ and PSI. Symbol Search requires paper-and-pencil coordination, although individuals with relatively poor coordination will often perform adequately on this subtest...

Depression and Bipolar Disorder

Depression often demonstrates itself in the cognitive profile with lower Performance than Verbal IQs (Gregory, 1987 Zimmerman & Woo-Sam, 1973). The reason for the higher Verbal IQ is generally believed to be due to impaired concentration, psychomotor retardation, anxiety, or low motivation. Indeed, some of the diagnostic signs of depression besides those of depressed mood include psychomotor retardation, fatigue, and diminished ability to concentrate or think (American Psychiatric...

The Normative Issue Part II The Satz Mogel Approach

Satz and Mogel (1962) abbreviated the WAIS by administering Digit Span and Digit Symbol in their entirety, while giving every third item on Information, Picture Completion, and Vocabulary and every second item on the remaining six subtests. This approach to short-form development has been commonly researched (Dinning & Craft, 1983 Evans, 1985 McPherson et al., 2000 Nelson, Edinger, & Wallace, 1978) and has probably been used fairly widely in clinical practice (Cella, Jacobsen, &...

On Gender Ethnicity Urban Rural Residence and Socioeconomic Status

Large, nationwide, carefully stratified standardization samples almost always represent the best samples of normal individuals obtained at one point in time on that test. Such samples serve the vital function of providing a representative normative group for determining an individual's accurate profile of IQs and scaled scores, but they can also serve the equally important function of understanding individual differences on key background variables like occupational group, urban versus rural...

Step 7 Generate Hypotheses about Fluctuations in the KAIT Profile

It is important to go beyond examination of the Crystallized-Fluid dichotomy when interpreting an individual's unique KAIT profile. This step helps interpret the individual's strengths and weaknesses in a meaningful way. In addition to examining different theoretical and research models to generate hypotheses, it is also necessary to integrate many other sources of information, such as background information about the examinee, the examinee's behaviors during the testing, and supplemental...

Interactions with Age Ethnicity Wechsler Battery and Reading Ability

The P > V sign seems to be more characteristic of adolescent delinquents aged 12 2 to 15 years tested on the WAIS or WAIS-R (Andrew, 1974 Grace & Sweeney, 1986 Henning & Levy, 1967 Matarazzo, 1972, Table 14.1). There is inconsistent evidence that the pattern is more characteristic of whites than African Americans (Cornell & Wilson, 1992 Grace & Sweeney, 1986 Henning & Levy, 1967), and, when present, it may even be an artifact of other variables related to psychopathic behavior...

Alternate Forms Reliability and Stability Waisiii versus Wisciii

Wechsler used three separate test batteries to cover the age span from 3 to 89 years the WPPSI-R (ages 3 to 7), the WISC-III (ages 6 to 16), and the WAIS-III (ages 16 to 89). At the ages of overlap, the Wechsler Scales are, in effect, alternate forms, and their correlations should be treated as alternate forms reliability coefficients. This section assesses the magnitude of the coefficients between the WISC-III and WAIS-III at age 16 to determine the alternate forms reliability of Wechsler's...

G7

Note To use this table, subtract the mean of all four Indexes from each interpretable Index to obtain a difference score for each interpretable Index. Select a significance level (.01 or .05) and compare the difference score to the value in the appropriate row (.01 or .05) and the appropriate Index column. (We recommend using the .05 level, which is shaded in the table.) If the difference score is equal to or greater than this value, then the difference is statistically significant. If the...

Educational Attainment

Recent data (late 1980s to mid-1990s) on the WAIS-III, KAIT, and K-BIT that relate educational attainment to intelligence are featured in this section. As mentioned previously, educational data are quite important for examiners to internalize because, like data on occupational groups, these data are closely associated with socioeconomic status and are often used to estimate SES. WAIS-III Mean Scores Earned by Adults Differing in Educational Attainment The data featured in this section are based...

Comparison of IQs Yielded by the WAISR and Waisiii

The number of studies employing both the WAIS-R and WAIS-III is smaller than the numerous studies available for comparing earlier versions of the test. The WAIS-III WMS-III Technical Manual (Psychological Corporation, 1997) provided data on a large sample (N 192) that was administered both tests in counterbalanced order (interval 2-12 weeks). The mean IQs differed very slightly, with the WAIS-III Full Scale IQ being 2.9 points less than the WAIS-R Full Scale IQ. The Verbal and Performance IQs...

The AntiIQ Sentiments

Stanovich (1999) wants to eliminate the aptitude-achievement discrepancy from the LD definition and, in the process, to sack the IQ test altogether LD advocacy will always be open to charges of 'queue jumping' as long as the field refuses to rid itself of its IQ fetishism, refuses to jettison aptitude achievement discrepancy, and fails to free clinical practice from the pseudosci-entific neurology that plagued the field in the 1970s (p. 359). Siegel (1999), in agreement with Stanovich's goals,...

KAIT Case Study

How to progress through the steps of KAIT interpretation was presented earlier in the chapter, but in this section we exemplify how all the KAIT data is integrated by presenting a case report. The goal of this example is to bring together the key points of the chapter in an applied format, to illustrate how the KAIT may be used as part of a comprehensive test battery. This case report will demonstrate how hypotheses are cross-validated with multiple sources of information (behavioral...

Organization Index

The first challenge to the sanctity of the FS-IQ in profile interpretation comes from the V-P IQ discrepancy.1 If it is found to be significant, FS-IQ immediately becomes less important than the distinction between the person's verbal and nonverbal 'If only the IQs are derived, then disregard the comparison between VCI and POI. Similarly, if only the Indexes are derived, then disregard the comparison between V-IQ and P-IQ. intelligence in describing his or her cognitive functioning. The...

Studies Focusing on Picture Completion Picture Arrangement or Object Assembly

The item content changes from the WAIS-R to the WAIS-III may have affected the continuity of the Picture Completion, Picture Arrangement, and Object Assembly subtests. Only 50 of the content of Picture Completion and Picture Arrangement was retained from the WAIS-R, and only 60 of the Object Assembly items were retained. In addition, the correlations between the WAIS-R and WAIS-III versions of these subtests are relatively low (r's of .59- 63). Although the effects of these differences in...

ACID and Bannatyne Patterns on the WAISR for Individuals with Learning Disabilities

Table 9.1 summarizes the results of six samples of adolescents and young adults tested on the WAIS-R, three samples are learning disabled, and three are included for comparison purposes. The table presents mean standard scores on the Bannatyne categories, the ACID profile, and the WAIS-R IQ scales. We computed the standard scores for the Bannatyne categories, entering the formulas presented in Kaufman (1990) with the relevant sum of scaled scores derived from group means. For the ACID profile,...

Wechsler and Kaufman Subtest Profiles

When ethnic differences are examined on global scales, specific differences in the subtest profile tend to be masked. In this section, Caucasian-African American differences are examined on the separate subtests of the WAIS-III, WAIS-R, and several Kaufman tests. On the WAIS-III, Heaton et al. (2001) found that, when they corrected for age, gender, and education, the largest differences between African Americans and Caucasians were on Block Design, Object Assembly, Symbol Search, and Vocabulary...

Autism

Autistic Disorder is a pervasive developmental disorder. The diagnostic criteria for Autistic Disorder as specified in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV American Psychiatric Association, 1994) include the following qualitative impairment in social interaction (e.g., failure to make eye contact, failure to develop age-appropriate peer relationships, impaired expression of pleasure in others' happiness, lack of social reciprocity) qualitative...

Abilities Measured by the 14 Waisiii Subtests

Each of the 14 WAIS-III subtests is dissected in the pages that follow in terms of several analyses Cognitive and Behavioral, Empirical, Aging, Clinical, and Neuropsychological. The seven Verbal subtests are listed first in their order of administration, followed by the seven Performance tasks, also in their order of administration. Sources and Methods for Analyzing Each Subtest Cognitive and behavioral analysis begins with a delineation of the abilities and traits assessed by each subtest in...

Versus Verbal Comprehension

The division of the Verbal indexes is probably one of the most common occurrences in a WAIS-III profile. A quick glance at the Verbal subtests commonly indicates that an individual's subtest fluctuations conform precisely to the results of countless factor structures The three Verbal Comprehension subtests (Information, Vocabulary, Similarities) cluster together, with the person performing either substantially higher or lower on the Working Memory triad of Digit Span, Letter-Number Sequencing,...

The Statistical Issue Correlated Error Variance

Silverstein has published numerous articles on sophisticated statistical techniques concerning short form development, for example, linear equating to obtain norms and computing standard errors (Silverstein, 1984a, 1984b). One set of articles has provoked mild controversy, namely the correction of short-form validity coefficients for the spuriousness that enters into the coefficients when the short-form scores are derived from a complete administration of a Wechsler battery (Kaufman, 1977...

Step 3 Is the KAIT Crystallized IQ versus Fluid IQ Difference Abnormal

Although a significant Crystallized IQ versus Fluid IQ discrepancy indicates that there are meaningful differences in a person's abilities, merely having a difference in one's abilities is not uncommon. In fact, the average Crystallized-Fluid IQ discrepancy in the standardization sample was approximately 9 points. Thus, average people demonstrate a statistically significant difference in their abilities. The rarity or unusual-ness of a discrepancy indicates whether or not it is clinically...

Overview of Matarazzos Findings and Generalization to the Waisiii

The following rules of thumb concerning practice effects on the WAIS-R could be deduced from the important work done by Matarazzo and his associates 1. Decreases in IQ are very unusual when a person is retested on the WAIS-R. Any decrease in IQs from test to retest is cause for some concern, and a loss of just 5 points is significant. These findings for WAIS-R are reasonable to generalize to the WAIS-III until similar data for the WAIS-III are made available by the publisher. 2. Substantial...

Wechslers Creativity

David Wechsler assembled a test battery in the mid-1930s that comprised subtests developed primarily by Binet and World War I psychologists. His Verbal Scale was essentially a Yerkes point-scale adaptation of Stanford-Binet tasks his Performance Scale, like other similar nonverbal batteries of the 1920s and 1930s (Cornell & Coxe, 1934 Pintner & Patterson, 1925), was a near replica of the tasks and items making up the individually administered Army Performance Scale Examination. In...

IQ Tasks Are Samples of Behavior and Are Not Exhaustive

The individual Wechsler subtests, or the subtests that compose the KAIT or WJ III, do not reflect the essential ingredients of intelligence whose mastery implies some type of ultimate life achievement. They, like tasks developed by Binet and other test constructors, are more or less arbitrary samples of behavior. Teaching people how to solve similarities, assemble blocks to match abstract designs, or repeat digits backward will not make them smarter in any broad or gen-eralizable way. What we...

Appropriateness of the New Brief Tests for African Americans and Hispanics

Silverstein's (1982d) Vocabulary-Block Design (V-BD) WAIS-R short form was hypothesized to underestimate IQs for African Americans (Kaufman, 1990) because the two component subtests typically produce among the largest differences between Caucasians and African Americans (see Chapter 4 section on ethnic differences). That hypothesis was given some support in two studies that compared Wechsler short forms that included V-BD with short forms that excluded them (Cravens, 1999 Paolo, Ryan, Ward,...

Comparison of Wechsler and PMA Results

Taken together, the Wechsler cohort-substitution longitudinal studies suggest that declines in P-IQ with age start at about age 50. In the WAIS WAIS-R study, the change in P-IQ for the youngest cohort in 1953 was a striking 11.6-point drop between ages 24.5 and 49.5 (Table 5.13). In the WAIS-R WAIS-III study, the cohort that turned 46.5 in 1995 dropped a modest 5.8 points in P-IQ, compared to a more substantial drop of 9.3 points for the cohort that turned 56.5 (Table 5.15). These sizable...

Block Design

Cognitive and Behavioral Analysis of Block Design Abilities Shared with Other Subtests Factor Analysis Two-, three-, and four-factor solutions Perceptual Organization Four factor solutions for ages 75-89 Processing Speed (primary), Perceptual Organization (secondary) Bannatyne Spatial Horn Fluid Intelligence (Gf) Broad Visualization (Gv) CHC Broad Visual Processing (Gv) Narrow Spatial Relations, Visualization Baltes Mechanics of communication Representational level of organization Rapaport...

The Nature and Frequency of Administration Errors

Moon et al. (1991) and Slate et al. (1991) both examined the errors made in the administration of the WAIS-R or WISC-R. The results of both studies generalize to the WAIS-III. A sample of 33 doctoral students in an APA-approved clinical psychology program provided the data for Moon et al.'s study. Thirteen of these students had already completed their formal coursework in psychological testing, and the remaining 20 students were enrolled in a required course on psycholog ical testing during the...

IQ and Occupation

For ages 20 to 54, WAIS-R data provide additional validation evidence for Wechsler's IQs by examining mean scores earned by adults actively engaged in different levels of occupation (Reynolds et al., 1987). Adolescents have been eliminated from consideration because occupational data are based on their parents' occupation, and the 55-74-year-olds have been eliminated because two thirds are categorized as Not in Labor Force. Occupational data are treated in depth in Chapter 4, and are summarized...

Individual Differences on Age Socioeconomic Status and Other Key Variables

CHAPTER 4 Individual Differences for Adolescents and Adults on Gender, Ethnicity, Urban-Rural Residence, and Socioeconomic Status 96 Gender Differences on Separate Subtests 98 Clinical Implications of Gender Differences on Mental Tasks 100 Ethnic Differences in IQ 101 Differences between Caucasians and African Americans 101 Differences between Caucasians and Hispanics 106 Urban-Rural Residence Differences 109 Generational Changes in Urban-Rural Differences 109 Residence Differences on the...

Digit Symbol Coding

The Digit Symbol or Substitution Test is one of the oldest and best established of all psychological tests. It is to be found in a large variety of intelligence scales, and its wide popularity is fully merited (Wechsler, 1958, p. 81). The W-B I Digit Symbol subtest was taken from the Army Beta, the only change being the reduction in response time from 2 minutes to 1J4 minutes to avoid a pileup of perfect scores. For the WAIS, the number of symbols to be copied was increased by about one third,...

High Average and Gifted Intellectual Functioning Full Scale IQ of 110

Like the individuals who are mentally retarded, adolescents and adults with superior intellectual abilities represent a heterogeneous group of individuals who may be assessed by psychologists for a variety of purposes.2 Bright adolescents may be evaluated for possible placement in gifted or honors programs or advanced placement in high school or college. Adults with exceptionally high intelligence may be assessed for occupational placement and planning. Although psychologists evaluate...

Overview of Malleability of IQ

To Brody (1985), the relative constancy of the IQ from early childhood through adulthood (Con-ley, 1984 Pinneau, 1961) and the failure of most intervention studies to demonstrate a malleable IQ suggest that intelligence tests are valid measures of the construct intelligence and are congruent with our ordinary intuitions about the meaning of the construct (p. 371). He is probably right in that sense. The stability data do support the validity of the IQ construct. For example, IQs at age 5 have...

Wj Iii Chc Growth Curves

The norm-based growth curves for 11 WJ III clusters are presented in Figures 14.5a-k.9 Included are the curves for the GIA-Ext (Figure 14.5a), seven CHC cognitive clusters (Gc, Glr, Gv, Ga, Gf, Gs, Gsm, Figure 14.5b-h), and three broad achievement clusters (reading, math, and written language, Figure 14.5i-k). Each figure includes three smoothed curves (average score and standard deviations) based on the WJ III norms. We believe these figures represent the first time a complete set of Gf-Gc...

When to Administer Brief Tests

Kaufman (in press) emphasize, we are proposing the use of the three new brief tests to replace short forms. We are not saying or implying that the new brief tests should be used to replace comprehensive IQ tests. In most clinical situations, clinicians should administer a comprehensive IQ test to achieve a competent evaluation, often including the IQ test as part of a larger neuropsychological, clinical, or psycho-educational battery. When assessing adolescents and adults,...

Info

WJ III Auditory Working Memory MW WJ III Memory for Words MS WJ III Memory for Sentences Id Ms WAIS-III Letter-Number Sequencing MW WMS-III Letter-Number Sequencing MW Note Bold font WJ III tests italic font WJ III Research tests (McGrew & Woodcock, 2001). Significant factor loadings have been replaced with the narrow CHC ability classifications proposed by McGrew et al. (2001). See Table 14.1 for the names and definitions corresponding to each narrow ability code abbreviation. Capitalized...

Depression and Pseudodementia

The essential feature of major or clinical depression is either depressed mood or the loss of interest or pleasure in nearly all activities during a period of at least 2 weeks (APA, 1994). Additional symptoms that may be present include sleep and or eating disturbances, psychomotor retardation or agitation, loss of energy, difficulties in thinking or concentration, and suicidal ideation. Typically, intelligence tests are not used as the primary assessment tool in diagnosing depression however,...

Standardization of the Wb I Wais Waisr and Waisiii

The standardization samples of the Wechsler adult batteries have improved significantly with each successive norming program. The initial standardization of the W-B I was conducted by Wechsler and his colleagues before he received financial backing from a test publisher, so a nation wide norming was not feasible consequently the W-B I was standardized on a population that was mostly urban from the City and State of New York (Wechsler, 1958, p. 92). The W-B I normative sample was also all...

Waisiii

For adolescents with Below Average cognitive ability, the WISC-III will allow them to better demonstrate what they are capable of answering. In contrast, on the WAIS-III there is a risk of a floor effect for individuals who are functioning at a low level. On the opposite end of the spectrum, a 16-year-old with Above Average intelligence may not be able to adequately demonstrate his or her knowledge on the WISC-III because of a ceiling effect. However, there are more difficult items available to...

Step 1 Interpret the KAIT Composite IQ

The Composite IQ is the most global and reliable measure of the KAIT. Beginning interpretation with the most reliable score of a test is a very sensible approach. After scoring the KAIT, including completing the bottom of the front page of the Individual Test Record form, which contains confidence intervals, the percentile ranks, and the descriptive categories, you can begin interpretation. Often, the percentile ranks and descriptive categories are more helpful and more descriptive to clients...

Step 5 Is VCI versus POI Difference Interpretable

The WAIS-III Verbal Comprehension Index and the Perceptual Organization Index provide examiners with an alternate pair of standard scores for comparing global verbal and nonverbal abilities, supplementing (and sometimes replacing) the all-encompassing V-IQ and P-IQ.4 4If only the IQs were derived, then skip Steps 5 and 6. The factor indexes are sometimes considered purer measures of verbal and nonverbal intelligence. As detailed in Table 11.4, the VCI excludes the subtests that are thought to...

Intra Ability Discrepancy Model

Unique to the WJ III are three types of norm-based within-person discrepancy score procedures that have the potential to better identify the unique patterns of cognitive abilities and achievements in individuals with LD. Collectively the intra-cognitive, intra-achievement, and intra-individual (cognitive and achievement combined) discrepancies are called the intra-ability discrepan 6The term aptitude has come to be misunderstood in much of psychological practice. Snow (1991) provides an...

When Vp Iq Discrepancies Are Meaningless

There are several circumstances when the difference between a person's Verbal and Performance IQs is of little interpretive value, and may even be misleading. Four such factors are summarized here. As explained in detail in the stepwise method for interpreting WAIS-III scores (Chapter 11), the V-P discrepancy is often not to be interpreted when one or both of the separate V and P IQ scales does not correspond to a unitary trait. The two main circumstances that cause the IQs not to be unitary...

General Intellectual Ability Achievement Discrepancy Model

Ninety-eight percent of all states, and most federal agencies servicing adolescents and adults, have followed the lead of federal law and have in- 3It is important to note that space limitations do not allow a detailed explanation of all caveats related to the use of the different WJ III discrepancy procedures in the art and science of LD decision making and classification. Comprehensive models that encompass a broader array of variables are required. A particularly interesting comprehensive...

Step 4 Determine if the Crystallized and Fluid IQs Are Interpretable

In order to interpret the Crystallized and Fluid scales in a meaningful way, each of the scales must be measuring a single construct. That is, merely because the scale is called the Crystallized Scale does not necessarily indicate that it is a good assessment of each individual's crystallized abilities. One way to determine if the Crystallized and Fluid scales are interpretable is to examine the amount of scatter among the subtests comprising either the Crystallized or Fluid scale. Scatter is...

VP Discrepancies and Brain Damage

Research in neuropsychology has consistently supported the notion that lesions in the left cere bral hemisphere are associated with diminished verbal and language abilities, whereas lesions in the right cerebral hemisphere are accompanied by visual-spatial deficits (Reitan, 1955c). Consequently, a logical hypothesis is that people with left-brain lesions will demonstrate P > V profiles, and those with documented right-brain lesions will show V > P discrepancies. This hypothesis has been...

Urban Rural Residence Differences

WAIS-III and KAIT data on the relationship of IQ to urban versus rural residence have not been reported, so this discussion is limited to analyses of the WAIS-R (Reynolds et al., 1987) and other older tests. WAIS-R IQs for the total WAIS-R standardization sample revealed that urban-rural differences were small and nonsignificant Urban residents outscored their rural counterparts by a trivial 2 2 points on V-IQ, less than 1 point on P-IQ, and 2 points on FS-IQ. For males, urban-rural IQ...

Alcohol Abuse

Alcohol abuse is characterized by a maladaptive pattern of alcohol use manifested by recurrent and significant adverse consequences related to the repeated use of alcohol (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). Cognitive impairments have also been shown in this population. For example, patients with intermediate-stage alcoholism have been shown to have a V > P profile on the Wechsler instruments. In reviewing the literature, Parsons (1996) notes that sober alcoholic patients are mildly to...

Cattell Horn GfGc Model

As reflected in Figure 14.1, by the early 1980s, John Horn, a student of Cattell's, articulated the relatively complete Gf-Gc model of intelligence that included eight broad abilities, which, in turn, subsumed the WERCOF and PMA abilities. Horn, like Cattell, continued to dismiss the notion of g and posited the broad abilities of fluid intelligence (Gf), crystallized intelligence (Gc), visual processing (Gv), auditory processing (Ga), short-term acquisition and retrieval (SAR, later referred to...

Stability of the Waisiii Subtests

Test-retest reliability coefficients, based on the same samples discussed previously for the IQs and indexes (Psychological Corporation, 1997, Tables 3.6-3.9) ranged in their mean values from .69 for Picture Arrangement to .94 for Information. For Verbal subtests, the mean of the means was .85, substantially higher than the mean of .78 for Performance subtests. Letter-Number Sequencing (.75), Object Assembly (.76), Matrix Reasoning (.77), Picture Completion (.79), and Symbol Search (.79) all...

Relationship of IQ to Education

For children's intelligence tests, correlations between IQ and school achievement are among the best evidences of validity, but those coefficients are less valuable for adult tests. The best arguments for the validity of an adult test are the relationships between IQ and formal education and between IQ and occupational level (a variable that correlates substantially with years of schooling Kaufman, 1990). Success in school is a key task of children and adolescents life accomplishments are the...

The Normative Issue Part I Thompsons Key Research

Thompson (1987) and his colleagues (Thompson, Howard, & Anderson, 1986) have contributed greatly to the validation of Silverstein's (1982a) short forms and delineated the range of their usefulness by conducting a long-needed study that needs replication but that still has dramatic implications for clinicians. Researchers have long conducted short-form research after the fact. Rather than administer just the two or four subtests constituting the brief battery to a fresh sample, the...

Common Configurations of the Waisiii Verbal Scale

Several global configurations involving five or all seven WAIS-III Verbal subtests occur frequently enough to warrant their internalization by examiners, especially those who prefer a holistic TABLE 12.6 Common configurations of the WAIS-III scales Configuration Memory little verbal expression Conceptualization much verbal expression Visual perception processing of abstract stimuli Visual perception processing of complete meaningful stimuli Visual perception processing of meaningful stimuli...

Response to the Critics

The critics are experts in the field of LD, especially reading, but they do not demonstrate expertise in the area of intellectual assessment and they are not current in their knowledge of contemporary instruments. They cite research to buttress their points, especially that IQ is unrelated to reading ability and to successful remediation, but they ignore other pertinent research that supports differences between individuals with LD versus low achievement (LA). These and related points are...

Processing Speed

Two other large-scale studies accord well with the interface of speed and cognition regarding cognitive decline with normal aging. Hertzog (1989) controlled for perceptual processing speed (using measures such as rapidly finding As in strings of letters) and found that the age-related variance in performance on other cognitive tasks was reduced by an average of 92 . Salthouse, Kausler, and Saults (1988) evaluated the influence of processing speed (time required to make simple comparisons) on...

Supplementing the Waisiiiwmsiii with the WJ III11

Table 14.10 provides a summary of the broad and narrow CHC ability classifications of the individual tests in the WAIS-III, WMS-III, KAIT, and WJ III based on McGrew et al. 2001 . A review of Table 14.10 indicates that the WAIS-III has adequate construct coverage i.e., at least two tests of two qualitatively different narrow CHC abilities of Gc, Gv, Gs, and Gsm. Supplementing the WAIS-III in these broad ability domains is not necessary, unless in-depth assessment of specific narrow abilities is...

Data from the Bonn Longitudinal Study

Zimprich 1998 used a statistical technique called latent growth curve methodology to investigate the contention that the loss of speed during aging leads directly to decrements in fluid ability. Using data from the Bonn Longitudinal Study of aging N 127 mean age 67 at four measurement points, Zimprich analyzed data on two markers of mental speed WAIS Digit Symbol and a simple psychomotor task and two measures of Gf WAIS Object Assembly and Block Design, both of which actually measure Gf and Gv...

Simultaneous versus Sequential Processing

The four subtests that make up Bannatyne's Spatial Ability category three of which compose the Perceptual Organization index are also measures of simultaneous processing, the kind of gestalt-holistic problem-solving approach that cerebral specialization researchers associate with the right hemisphere and Luria adherents attribute to the occipital-parietal regions of the brain. Of the remaining Performance subtests, analytic, linear, left-brain processing is best measured by Digit Symbol-Coding....

Group versus Individual Interpretation

The studies and variables discussed in this chapter address the issue of comparability to discern whether the body of research accumulated on the W-B I, WAIS, and WAIS-R is applicable to the most recent version, the WAIS-III. As indicated, the answer to this question is generally yes, with some areas of caution. However, this continuity concerns the generalizability of group data obtained on one instrument to group data on another instrument. In the case of specific individuals, one would not...

Assessment of Memory and Learning Gsm Gv Glr Gf and Gc

Memory and learning tests constitute the broadest category of tests in a traditional neuropsychological classification. From the perspective of CHC theory, three factorially distinct cognitive abilities Gsm, Glr, Gc fall within this broad category. The clinical assessment of memory deficits typically involves evaluation of the ability to actively learn and remember new material presented in both auditory and visual modalities. The adequacy of both short-term memory immediate recall and...

Visual Organization versus Visual Motor Coordination

A frequent performance dichotomy, easy to spot, conforms to Rapaport's distinction between visual organization without essential motor activity and visual-motor coordination. The tasks least dependent on motor coordination are Matrix Reasoning and Picture Completion and the most motor-oriented subtest is Digit Symbol-Coding. Symbol Search and Picture Arrangement could legitimately be placed in either category. For most individuals, in our clinical opinion, they are best classified as Visual...

Occupational Differences

Like residence, occupational group was not used as a stratification variable for either the WAIS-III or KAIT, so data relating IQ to occupation are based on WAIS-R analyses Reynolds et al., 1987 . Occupational category is an important variable to understand because, like educational attainment, it is often used as an index of socioeconomic status. In Table 4.4, occupation differences are provided for the total WAIS-R sample, revealing a steady decline in mean IQs from professional and technical...

The Fuld Profile

Fuld derived her WAIS profile from an earlier study Drachman amp Leavitt, 1974 and initially reported that an estimated 50 of Alzheimer's patients, compared to less than 1 of normal elderly adults, displayed the characteristic profile Fuld, 1983 . She and other investigators subsequently conducted careful research studies to systematically confirm or deny these clinical estimates. The profile makes use of only seven WAIS-R subtests actually, Fuld and most other researchers have used the WAIS ,...

Prediction of Job Performance

Average correlations between general intelligence and job proficiency are traditionally in the .20s Ghiselli, 1966, 1973 . However, because the predictors and criteria are typically restricted in variability due to selection factors and other practical limitations of test validation in industrial settings, some have argued that such coefficients require statistical correction to reflect more accurately the true relationship between IQ and job success Hunter amp Hunter, 1984 . For the purpose...

Verbal Performance IQ Discrepancies A Neuropsychological Approach

Wechsler 1939 published the first edition of the Wechsler-Bellevue about a half century ago, and clinical interest in Verbal-Performance IQ V-P discrepancies probably surfaced a few minutes after publication. Just as Wechsler researchers enjoy nothing more than factor-analyzing or abbreviating a battery, Wechsler clinicians have a difficult time satisfying their craving for interpreting V-P IQ discrepancies and relating such differences to neurological impairment, psychopathology, and diverse...

Versus Nonverbal Thinking

One other configuration involving the entire Performance scale is easily and immediately recognizable High scores on Picture Completion, Digit Symbol-Coding, and Symbol Search conceivably indicate a good visual memory, because the former tests long-term visual memory and the latter two assess short-term visual memory although Digit Symbol-Coding does so to a lesser extent than perceptual speed Laux amp Lane, 1985 . Other Performance subtests measure nonverbal thinking and problem solving, as...

Personality and Interests as They Pertain to Career Choices

Assisting individuals to make academic and career choices by assessing their vocational interests and personality style has been a traditional role for counselors and clinical psychologists Lowman, 1991 . School psychologists have also begun to participate in this type of assessment Bernard amp Naylor, 1982 Shepard amp Hohenshil, 1983 . Given the widely held belief that personality and intellectual processes are closely reTABLE 13.16 Hypothesized KAIT results for clients with depression or...

And Weaknesses of the Subtest Profile

Unlike the traditional standard scores with a mean of 100 and SD of 15 that are used for the IQs and indexes, WAIS-III scaled scores are a special kind of standard score that have a mean set at 10 and SD set at 3 scaled scores on the WAIS-III can range from 1 to 19. These simple parameters have allowed clinicians to easily compare a person's performance from one subtest to another to evaluate fluctuations in a person's scores on the same subtest from one time to another and to relate the...

Malleability

Angoff 1988 has argued that the wrong question has continually been asked by those trying to determine the relative influences of heredity and environment on IQ variability. Researchers have insisted that genetic does not mean immutable Plomin, 1983, p. 253 , and have deplored the fact that t he myth of heritability limiting malleability seems to die hard Scarr, 1981, p. 53 . Yet Angoff argues that intelligence is thought by many to be largely innate and to a considerable extent inherited, and...

Brief Tests of Either Nonverbal or Verbal Ability

In this section of the chapter, we present information on three brief tests with generally good psychometric properties that measure specific abilities, either verbal or nonverbal. One verbal test is discussed, a popular brief test of semantic knowledge, the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test Third Edition PPVT-III Dunn amp Dunn, 1997 we also discuss two nonverbal tests the General Abilities Measure for Adults GAMA Naglieri amp Bardos, 1997 and Matrix Analogies Test MAT Naglieri, 1985a, 1985b .

Step 6 Interpret KAIT Strengths and Weaknesses

To gain a more thorough understanding of an individual's abilities, it is helpful to look at the strengths and weaknesses within the profile. Many adolescents and adults show variability within their subtest profile, so it is important to determine whether the variability within the profile is statistically significant. This process involves calculating statistically significant strengths and weaknesses within the subtest scaled scores. There are typically two modes of determining strengths and...

Wisciv

Perceptual Organization Perceptual Reasoning Matrix Reasoning Matrix Reasoning Picture Completion Picture Concepts Sequencing Sequencing Arithmetic Note Italics denote subtests that are the same on the WAIS-III and WISC-IV Indexes. Because the WISC-IV does not offer Verbal or Performance IQs, these separate IQs play no part in the WISC-IV interpretive system hence, Verbal and Performance IQs are excluded from the analog system presented in this Appendix for the WAIS-III. Examiners who find...

Cd Ss

Impact of POI Subtest Scatter on the other Tiers of the WAIS-III Hierarchy puzzles, and determining what is missing from a stimulus picture, the POI assesses one's ability to visually integrate information, motorically manipulate objects, and apply visual-spatial skills to problems that are not school-taught. The POI is most similar to the Broad Visualization Gv and Fluid Gf dimensions of Horn's expanded Gf-Gc model Horn, 1989 Horn amp Hofer, 1992 Horn amp Noll, 1997 . As we discuss elsewhere...

Age and Grade Equivalents

The WJ III provides both age AE and grade equivalent GE scores. An AE or GE reflects the subject's performance in terms of the age or grade level in the norming sample at which the median score is the same as the subject's score. The WJ III AE and GE scores have advantages over AE or GE scores reported on many other test batteries. One frequently cited criticism of grade or age scores is that they are not useful for instructional planning because they do not reflect the student's ability. It is...

Object Assembly

Cognitive and Behavioral Analysis of Object Assembly Abilities Shared with Other Subtests Factor Analysis Two-, three-, and four-factor solutions Perceptual Organization Bannatyne Spatial Horn Fluid Intelligence Gf CHC Broad Visual Processing Gv of communication Representational level of organization Visual-motor coordination Anticipation Visual-motor speed Cognition of figural content systems and transformations Evaluation of figural relations Synthesis Simultaneous holistic, right-brain...

Gender of Patients with Lateralized Lesions

Males and females are believed to differ in various aspects of brain functioning Witelson, 1976 , and they have demonstrated differences in cerebral organization in experiments with normal individuals using techniques such as dichotic listening and assessment of the superiority of the left or right visual fields for verbal versus visual-spatial stimuli Bryden, 1979 . Lezak 1995 concludes that lateral asymmetry is not as pronounced in women as in men p. 297 . Yet this variable has been ignored...

KAITs Construct Validity for African Americans and Hispanics

The KAIT Manual Kaufman amp Kaufman, 1993 provides strong evidence for the construct validity of the scale using the entire standardization sample. However, because people from different ethnic groups often perform differently on tests of intelligence, it is important to extend the construct validity of the KAIT to examine the differential construct validity for separate ethnic groups. Here we discuss the KAIT's construct validity in samples of Caucasians, African Americans, and Hispanics...

Introduction to Waisiii Subtest Interpretive Tables

The abilities that are believed to underlie each WAIS-III subtest are organized in Table 12.3. The information included in the tables summarizes the material that was included in the sub-test-by-subtest analysis in Chapter 10. The abilities and influences that are shared by at least two WAIS-III subtests are easy to pinpoint in the table. These tables are quite similar to tables that are presented for the WISC-III Kaufman, 1994a . Table 12.3 is organized by Silver's 1993 information-processing...

The Theories of Luria and Piaget in the KAIT

Both Luria's 1980 definition of planning ability and Piaget's 1972 stage of formal operations also helped to guide the development of the KAIT. Certain developmental changes in the brain that emerge at the ages of 11 or 12 are associated with Luria's 1973, 1980 notion of planning ability Block 3 . Similarly, Piaget's formal operational stage also begins to emerge at ages 11 or 12. Furthermore, Luria's definition of planning ability involves decision making, evaluation of hypotheses, and...

Versus PIQ Discrepancy Interpretable

Determination of whether there was a significant discrepancy between either the V-IQ and P-IQ or the VCI and POI took place in Step 2.3 However, if such discrepancies were not found to be abnormally large Step 3 , further investigation needs to take place before those discrepancies 3If only the IQs are derived, then disregard the VCI-WMI and POI-PSI comparisons, and instead just assess the level of subtest scatter in each of the IQs. If only the Indexes are derived, then just calculate the...

Woodcock JohnsonRevised WJR

In 1989 a revised and re-standardized WJ-R battery was published Woodcock amp Johnson, 1989a, 1996b . The primary goal of the WJ-R was to expand the diagnostic capabilities of the test and to complement the pragmatic decision-making model with a validated structure-of-intellect model viz., Cattell-Horn Gf-Gc the ory McGrew, 1994 McGrew et al., 1991 . The WJ Tests of Interest were dropped and the WJ-R was divided into two main batteries Tests of Cognitive Ability WJ-R COG and Tests of...

Application of the Wj Iii to Neuropsychological Assessment

Why should a practicing neuropsychologist spend time studying new models of cognitive abilities and, in particular, CHC theory As outlined earlier in this chapter, a primary reason is that the CHC model represents the best of current research into the structure of intellect. A second reason is that the CHC organization offers an empirically derived taxonomic classification of cognitive abilities that is characterized by a high level of functional independence among the categories. Traditional...

References

Psychological testing 7 th ed. . Upper Saddle River, NJ Prentice Hall. Carroll, J. B. 1993 . Human cognitive abilities A survey of factor analytic studies. New York Cambridge University Press. Carroll, J. B. 1998 . Foreword. In K S. McGrew amp D. P Flanagan Eds. , The intelligence test desk reference ITDR Gf-Gc cross-battery assessment. Boston Allyn amp Bacon. Cicchetti, D. V 1994 . Guidelines, criteria, and rules of thumb for evaluating normed and...

Neuropsychological Applications

One distinguishing characteristic of neuropsychological assessment is its emphasis on the identification and measurement of psychological deficits Neuropsychological assessment is also concerned with the documentation and description of preserved functions the patient's behavioral competencies and strengths. Lezak, 1995, p. 97 Neuropsychological assessment is concerned with evaluating brain-behavior relations. His torically, there have been two approaches to neuropsychological assessment. The...

Predicted Achievement Achievement Discrepancy Model

The WJ III Predicted Achievement PA Model for ability-achievement discrepancy calculation is also portrayed in Figure 14.3. A similar model was present in the WJ and WJ-R in which the differential Scholastic Aptitude clusters were used as the predictor measures. The Scholastic Aptitude clusters were used to provide predicted achievement scores based on the best combination of four cognitive tests that predicted different achievement domains McGrew, 1986, 1994 McGrew et al., 1991 Woodcock, 1978...

Item Content Changes

From the W-B I to the WAIS to the WAIS-R and to the WAIS-III Table 3.1 presents a summary of changes in the item content of the 11 subtests when the W-B I was first revised to produce the WAIS, the WAIS was revised a generation later to become the WAIS-R, and finally the WAIS-R was revised to produce the WAIS-III in 1997, fully 16 years after Wechsler's death. Although now in its final form, the WAIS-III has 14 rather than 11 subtests, Table 3.1 discusses the subtests that are common among all...

Kbit

Mean K-BIT standard scores earned by adults, ages 20-90 years, categorized by education Kaufman amp Wang, 1992 are shown in Table 4.10. The pattern of a stronger relationship with the verbal-crystallized measure Vocabulary than with the nonverbal-fluid measure Matrices conforms to the patterns found for the KAIT and the various Wechsler adult scales. The magnitude of the effect sizes for the three K-BIT scores 2.06 to 2.45 SD , however, is substantially higher than the magnitude for the more...

Advantages of the Wj Iii in Measuring Growth and Change

The WJ III is particularly well suited for the measurement of growth and change both in clinical practice and for developmental research. A number of characteristics of the WJ III address the previously described limitations of measures. First, the WJ III includes the same tests across all developmental age groups. Although only certain tests provide norms below age five, almost all of the 20 WJ III COG and 24 ACH tests provide measurement starting at age 5 or 6 and extending up through 95...

Gender Differences on Separate Subtests

Gender differences on the separate WAIS-III subtests Heaton et al., 2001 were notable about 0.5 SD on three subtests Males outscored females on Information and Arithmetic and females scored higher on Digit Symbol. Smaller effect sizes of about 0.2-0.3 were observed on Comprehension, Block Design, and Picture Arrangement, with males scoring higher in each case. Females scored higher on Symbol Search 0.15 SD , but the remaining seven subtests produced trivial effect sizes less than 0.1 SD . KAIT...

Digit Span

Memory Span for Digits renamed Digit Span combines in a single subtest two skills that subsequent research has shown to be distinct in many ways Costa, 1975 Jensen amp Figueroa, 1975 repetition of digits in the same order as they are spoken by the examiner, and repetition of digits in the reverse order. Wechsler 1958 combined these two tasks for pragmatic reasons, however, not theoretical ones Each task alone had too limited a range of possible raw scores, and treating each set of items as a...

Lezaks Eulogy

Muriel Lezak announced to the professional world that the IQ concept was dead in an address to the International Neuropsychological Society in January 1988, which she subsequently published as IQ R.I.P. in the Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology Lezak, 1988a . However, she delivered a funeral oration for a corpse that has been dead for at least 10 to 15 years Kaufman, 1988 Reynolds, 1988 , thus demonstrating that some leaders in the field of neuropsycho-logy may be oblivious to...

The V P Profile

Fuld 1984 was able to obtain valid WAIS data for 46 Alzheimer's patients based on IQs prorated from four Verbal and three Performance subtests, she observed V gt P profiles of 15 or more points in 24 52 of these patients. Intriguingly, Fuld also obtained dramatic V gt P findings for 20 normal graduate and undergraduate students who were given drugs to induce experimentally the impaired cholinergic neurotransmitter functioning believed to characterize Alzheimer's patients. All 20 subjects...

Schizophrenia

Hoff et al. 1990 found a 9-point WAIS-R V gt P profile in their 30 inpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia 70 male mean age 25 . Eleven of Hoff et al.'s patients were off medication at the time of testing and 19 were on either neurolep-tics, anticonvulsants, or lithium however, the authors did not report the mean V-P differences for the patients on versus those off medication. The 17 outpatients with schizophrenia that were assessed on the WAIS-R by Morice and Delahunty 1996 showed a 7.4-point...

Step 1 Interpret the Full Scale IQ

The initial step in comprehensive analyses of WAIS-III profile fluctuations involves systematic statistical treatment of the most global score, Full Scale IQ. Following this initial step, proceed in a stepwise fashion to examination of the other IQs, Indexes, and, finally, specific subtests. Because the Full Scale IQ is the most reliable score in the battery mean split-half coefficient of .98 , it is the logical starting point in Wechsler profile interpretation. This score should be assigned an...

Overview and Description

The WASI Psychological Corporation, 1999 was developed in order to meet the needs for an abbreviated scale of intelligence for clinical, psy-choeducational, and research settings. It can be used to assess a broad age range, from ages 6 through 89 years. It consists of four subtests Vocabulary, Block Design, Similarities, and Matrix Reasoning, which are similar to the subtests of the same name on the WAIS-III and the WISC-III exception Matrix Reasoning, which does not appear on the WISC-III ....

Mental Retardation

Data from a standardized instrument measuring cognitive ability and a measure of adaptive functioning are typically used in making the diagnosis of mental retardation.1 To be categorized as mentally retarded, a person must have an IQ of less than 70, in addition to having significantly impaired adaptive functioning American Psychiatric Association, 1994 . The American Association on Mental Retardation AAMR has a similar definition of mental retardation, emphasizing the necessity of subaverage...

Standardization and Psychometric Properties

The GAMA was standardized with a sample of 2,360 adults ages 18 to 96 that was stratified to closely match the 1990 U.S. Census data. The internal consistency of the GAMA IQ score was strong across 11 age intervals the reliability coefficients ranged from .79 to .94 the average was .90 . The internal consistency coefficients for the individual subtests are adequate for Analogies .81 and Sequences .79 and low for Matching .66 and Construction .65 Naglieri amp Bardos, 1997 . Two studies have...

KAIT and the Wechsler Scales

In developing the KAIT, the Kaufmans wanted their test's Fluid Scale to measure planning ability and problem solving based on higher-level reasoning rather than broad visualization. Although Wechsler's Performance Scale has often been considered a measure of fluid ability, Horn noted that the Performance IQ emphasizes visualization Horn amp Hofer, 1992 and Woodcock 1990 demonstrated that the Performance IQ measures broad visualization Gv , not simply fluid intelligence. To determine the overlap...

Clinical and Research Implications of Practice Effects

The impact of retesting on test performance, whether using the WAIS-III, WAIS-R, other Wechsler scales, or similar tests, needs to be internalized by researchers and clinicians alike. Researchers should be aware of the routine and expected gains of about 2 points in V-IQ for all ages between 16 and 89 years. They also should internalize the relatively large gain on P-IQ for ages 16-54 about 8 to 8 points , and the fact that this gain in P-IQ dwindles in size to less than 6 points for ages 55-74...