For virtually all adolescents or adults believed to be learning disabled, one might anticipate relatively good performance in Spatial Ability versus relatively poor performance in Sequential Ability. In Table 9.1 the college students with learning disabilities scored 5 points higher on Spatial than Sequential; the adults with dyslexia scored 36 points higher, and the 16-year-olds scored 22 points higher. The WAIS investigations produced similar findings: McCue et al.'s (1986) adults with learning disabilities scored 11 points higher on Spatial than Sequential; Blalock's (1987) adults with learning disabilities (40% with college experience) scored 7 points higher; and Cordoni et al.'s (1981) college students with learning disabilities scored 14 points higher. In the study that merged WAIS and WAIS-R data (Ackerman et al., 1987), males had a 15-point Spatial > Sequential differential, while the female applicants to a special LD college program had a 10-point discrepancy. Only Vogel's (1986)
sample of female college students with learning disabilities showed a trivial difference in favor of Spatial Ability (2 points).
Among the comparison samples, the two groups of incarcerated adults scored 3J4 to 4 points higher, while the normal college students earned virtually identical scores on the Spatial and Sequential categories. Cordoni et al.'s (1981) normal control group of 17 normal college students scored 1 point lower on Spatial Ability. Thus, high Spatial-low Sequential profiles are far more associated with adolescents and adults with learning disabilities (median discrepancy of 11 points for eight samples) than with pertinent comparison samples (median of 2 points for four samples).
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