Novel Applications of CGTase

A novel application of CGTases as transglucosidase was reported by Kometani et al. (1994a, b; 1996a, b). The CGTase A2-5a exhibits strong transglycosylation activity especially at higher pH values. An alkaline pH was very effective for solubilizing neohesperidin, the amount of glycosides formed increased. As a result, its amount with (i-CD at pH 10 was about seven times greater than that with soluble starch at pH 5. The enzyme from an alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. had wider acceptor specificity than that from B. mac-erans.

Among flavonoids, those containing rutinose (diosmin and hesperidin) were transglycosylated more effectively than those containing neohesperi-dose (naringin and neohesperidin). Furthermore, the CGTase produced hesperidin monoglucoside and a series of its oligoglucosides by the transglycosylation reaction with hesperidin as an acceptor and soluble starch as a donor. The formation of the glycosides was more effective at alkaline pH values than at neutral or acidic pH values because of the higher solubility of

Table 8.11 Industrial application of cyclodextrins

Functions

Guests

End Products

Foods

Emulsification

Stabilization

Oils and fats

Flavors, Spices, Colors and pigments

Masking of taste and odor

Improvement of quality

Reduce volatility Others

Ethanol

Margarine, Cake, Whipping cream,

French dressing Horseradish paste, Mustard paste Cakes and cookies, Pickled vegetables,Dried vegetables Juices, Soy milk. Bone powder, Boiled rice

Hard candy, Cheese, Soy sauce,

Canned citrus fruits and juices Food preservatives Breath mints

Cosmetics and toiletries Emulsification Stabilization

Oils and fats Flavors and fragrances

Face cream, Face lotion. Toothpaste Bath refresher crystals

Agrochemicals Stabilization

Reduce volatility

Reduce toxicity

Pyrolnitrin Pvrethroids Organic phosphates (DDVP)

Thiocarbamic acid 2-Amino 4-methyl-phosphynobutyric acid

Fungicide Insecticide

Insecticide Herbicide Fungicide

Functions

Guests and End Products

Pharmaceuticals Improve solubility

Chemical stabilization Hydrolysis Oxidation Photolysis Dehydration Improve bioavailability

Prostaglandins, Steroids, Cardiac glycosids. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents, Barbiturates, Phenytoin, Sulfornamides, Sulfonylureas, Benzodiazepines

Prostacvlin, Cardiac glycosides, .Aspirin, Atropine, Procaine Aldehydes, Epinephrine, Phenothiazines Phenothiazines, Ubiquinones, Vitamins Prostaglandin E,, ONO-SOS

Aspirin, Phenytoin, Digoxine, Acetohexamide, Barbiturates,

Nonsteroidal antiinflammatories ONO-802, Clofibrate, Benzaldehyde, Nitroglycerin, Vitamin Ki,

Ka, Methylsalicvlate Iodine, Naphthalene, rf-Camphor, /-Menthol, Methvlcinnamate Prostaglandins, Alkvlparabens Reduce irritation to stomach Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents

Reduce hemolysis Phenothiazines, Flufenamic acid, Benzylalcohol, Antibiotics

Powdering

Reduce volatility Improve taste, smell the acceptor. The structure of the purified monoglucoside was identified as 4(G)- a-D-glucopyranosyl hesperidin. The solubility of both hesperidin mono- and diglucoside in water was about 300 times higher than that of hesperidin and they were found to have a stablizing effect on the yellow pigment crocin, from fruit of Gardenia jasminoides, against ultraviolet radiation. Therefore, CGTase can be used not only for the production of CDs but has other important potential applications.

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