Pathology

Multiple, highly variable vascular lesions can cause VaD, including large vessel atherosclerotic occlusion, thromboembolism, small vessel disease, intracerebral hemorrhage associated with hypertension and other causes, subarachnoid hemorrhage, hypoperfusion with ischemic injury, vasculitides, and others. In many patients with cognitive decline associated with cerebrovascular disease who have focal destructive lesions, there is also diffuse, widespread vascular disease throughout much of the...

Mild Cognitive Impairment Transition from Aging to Alzheimers Disease

Early identification of persons who might be developing a cognitive impairment which may lead to Alzheimer's disease (AD) has become an increasingly popular topic for investigation. At the previous meetings of what is now the World Alzheimer's Congress, the concept of mild cognitive impairment received scant attention. However, this year there are numerous presentations and scientific studies involving this condition. A major focus of the basic biology of AD concerns preventive strategies. Work...

Inflammation And The Clinical Progression Of Alzheimers Disease Dementia

Prior studies have shown that COX-2, an enzyme involved in inflammatory mechanisms and neuronal activities (reviewed in Pasinetti, 1998), is upregulated in the AD brain and may represent a therapeutic target for antiinflammatory treatments (Ho et al., 1999). COX exists in two isoforms, coded by distinct genes on different chromosomes (Kujubu et al., 1991 Cao et al., 1995 O'Banion et al., 1992). The two isoforms show about 50 homology and have similar catalytic activity, but are physiologically...

Pet Studies In Subjects At Risk Of Developing Ad

When focusing on preclinical and early stages of AD as well as the corresponding functional disturbances in the brain, it is relevant to address the main sources of evidence obtained from PET studies in subjects at high risk of developing AD. In this risk group can be included individuals belonging to families with chromosomal aberrations in chromosome 14 and 21, subjects carrying apoE-e4 allele and subjects with mild cognitive impairment. It is important in the context of early diagnostic...

Mixed Vascular Dementia And Alzheimers Disease

'Mixed dementia' can refer to the presence of two or more causes of dementia however, it generally refers to the coexistence of the clinical and pathologic alterations of both AD and VaD. Tomlinson et al. (1968, 1970) first called attention to this disorder when they suggested that the combined effects of AD histopathologic lesions and cerebral infarctions might lead to intellectual decline. Criteria for the diagnosis of mixed AD VaD have not been developed thus, the true frequency is not...

Epidemiology of Dementia in Downs Syndrome

Neuropathological changes consistent with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been found in virtually all individuals with Down's syndrome (DS) over the age of 40, including deposition of p-amyloid (Ap) in diffuse and neuritic plaques (Mann, 1988 Wisniewski et al., 1994). Most adults with DS will develop dementia by the time they are 70 years of age, and it has been suggested that the identification of processes which contribute to a high risk of AD can serve as a model for the role of...

Scientists Honored for Pioneering Research

LIFETIME ACHIEVEMENT AWARDS IN ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE RESEARCH Leonard Berg is Professor Emeritus of Neurology at Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA, where he founded and directed the Alzheimer's Disease Research Center (ADRC) from 1985 to 1997. A St. Louis native, he completed both BA (1945) and MD (1949) degrees at Washington University. He completed his neurology residency at the Neurological Institute of New York and then held a research appointment at the...

Odor Threshold

Although early reports of deficits in odor identification had appeared in the literature, it was not clear that these deficits derived from degeneration in the olfactory system in AD patients since the anomia found in AD patients could well impact their performance in an odor-naming task. Therefore, odor threshold was assessed in patients who had received the diagnosis of probable AD from two different neurologists at the UCSD Alzheimer's Disease Research Center using the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria...

Contents

Scientists Honored for Pioneering Research xxix I. EPIDEMIOLOGY AND RISK FACTORS 1 1. The Transition from Normal Functioning to Dementia in the Aging Population Laura Fratiglioni, Brent Small, Bengt Winblad and Lars Backman 3 2. Epidemiology of Alzheimer's Disease and Dementia Advances and Challenges 3. Epidemiology of Dementia in Down's Syndrome 4. A Genomic Search for Alzheimer's Disease Genes Jonathan L. Haines, L. Renee Bailey, Janet M. Grubber, Dale Hedges, Jenifer L. Hall, Sandra West,...

Tau Function And Dysfunction

Tau belongs to a family of proteins known as microtubule-associated proteins MAPs Weingarten et al., 1975 . Involved in microtubule assembly and stabilization in neurons and probably glia, tau is important for the maintenance of the cytoskeleton LoPresti et al., 1995 . Although tau is normally localized mainly in the axons, where it plays a role in axonal motorprotein transport Ebneth et al., 1998 , somatodendritic localization of tau is thought to occur during tau dysfunction. This altered...

Isbn Benton Hamsher Multilingual Aphasia Examination 1976

Albert M, Moss M, Tanzi R, Jones K. 2000 Preclinical prediction of AD using neuropsychological tests. JINS J Int Neuropsychol Soc, in press. Arikuni T, Sako H, Murata A. 1994 Ipsilateral connections of the anterior cingulate with the frontal and medial temporal cortices in the macaque monkey. Neurosci Res, 21, 19-39. Baker EL, Letz R, Fidler AT. 1985 A computer administered neurobehavioral evaluation system for occupational and environmental epidemiology. J Occup Med, 27, 206-12. Benton AL,...

References

Armitage SG 1946 An analysis of certain psychological tests used for the evaluation of brain injury. Psychol Monogr 277 1-48. Benton AL, Hamsher K 1976 Multilingual Aphasia Examination. Iowa City University of Iowa. Blessed G, Tomlinson BE, Roth M 1968 The association between quantitative measures of dementia and senile change in the grey matter of elderly subjects. Br J Psychiatry 114 797-811. Bondi M, Monsch A, Galasko D, Butters N, Salmon D, Delis D 1994 Preclinical cognitive markers of...

Odor Identification

The initial reports of olfactory dysfunction in AD suggested impairment in odor identification, or, at least, of confrontational naming anomia of odors, typically aided by a written list of possible alternatives Waldton, 1974 Serby et al., 1985 Doty et al., 1987 Koss, 1986 Knupfer and Spiegel, 1986 Morgan et al., 1995 Murphy et al., 1998 . A number of these investigations employed the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test UPSIT Doty et al., 1984 , a 40-item, multiple choice,...

Dedications

This book is dedicated to Drs Eva Braak and Henry M. Wisniewski, two distinguished Alzheimer's disease researchers who have died since the publication of our previous book on Alzheimer's disease, two years ago. EVA BRAAK, 'OUTSTANDING BUT UNASSUMING' Eva Braak, after several years of bold fight, died of ovarian cancer on 25 August, 2000 in Frankfurt, Germany. Eva was one of the most outstanding but unassuming neuroanatomists and neurobiologists of her generation, who made major research...

Tau Gene Mutations Affect Multiple Splicing Enhancer And Silencer Sequences

In vitro functional analyses reveal two classes of tau mutations. One class includes mutations G272V E9 , P301L, P301S, A280K E10 , V337M E12 , and R406W E13 that alter tau function by compromising tau's affinity for microtubules and or tau's ability to polymerize microtubules Hasegawa et al., 1998 Hong et al., 1998 Dayanandan et al., 1999 D'Souza et al., 1999 as well as by promoting self-assembly of tau as paired helical filaments PHF Goedert et al., 1999 Nacharaju et al., 1999 Barghorn et...

Atypical Karyotypes

The high risk of AD in DS is also associated with early mortality, with an average life expectancy at birth of only 56 years Baird and Sadovnick,1988 . Karyotypic analysis of adults aged over 70 years with DS can provide an opportunity to identify genetic factors associated with longevity. While these cases are rare, they are highly informative and suggest that karyotypes that decrease pAPP load are associated with improved survival and reduced risk of AD. Prasher and colleagues determined the...

Contributors

Adamson Mayo Clinic Jacksonville, 4500 San Pablo Road, Jacksonville, FL 32224, USA D. A. Agard The Howard Hughes Medical Institute and the Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA M. S. Albert Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, MGH East 149 9124, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA G. Aliev Department of Anatomy, Case Western Reserve University, 2085 Adelbert Road, Cleveland, OH 44106-2622, USA O. Almkvist Karolinska...