References

Andreassen OA, Dedeoglu A, Klivenyi P, Beal MF, Bush AI (2000) N-acetyl-L-cysteine improves survival and preserves motor performance in an animal model of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. NeuroReport 11, 2491-3.

Atwood CS, Huang X, Moir RD, Tanzi RE, Bush AI (1999) Role of free radicals and metal ions in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Metal Ions Biol Syst 36, 309-64.

Atwood CS, Moir RD, Huang X et al. (1998) Dramatic aggregation of Alzheimer AP by Cu(II) is induced by conditions representing physiological acidosis. J Biol Chem 273, 12 817-26.

Atwood CS, Scarpa RC, Huang X et al. (2000) Characterization of copper interactions with Alzheimer AP peptides—identification of an attomolar affinity copper binding site on AP1-42. J Neurochemistry 75, 1219-33.

Basun H, Forssell LG, Wetterberg L, Winblad B (1991) Metals and trace elements in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease. J Neural Transm Park Dis Dement Sect 3, 231-58.

Behl C, Davis JB, Lesley R, Schubert D (1994) Hydrogen peroxide mediates amyloid P protein toxicity. Cell 77, 817-27.

Bielski BHJ, Cabelli DE, Arudi RL, Ross AB (1985) Reactivity of HO2O27-radicals in aqueous solution. J Phys Chem Ref Data 14, 1041-100.

Bruce AJ, Malfroy B, Baudry M (1996) beta-Amyloid toxicity in organotypic hippocampal cultures: protection by Euk-8, a synthetic catalytic free radical scavenger. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93, 2312-16.

Bruijn LI, Houseweart MK, Kato S et al. (1998) Aggregation and motor neuron toxicity of an ALS-linked SOD1 mutant independent from wild-type SOD1. Science 281, 1851-4.

Bush AI, Huang X, Fairlie DP (1999a) The possible origin of free radicals from amyloid P peptides in Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol Aging 20, 335-7.

Bush AI, Lynch T, Cherny RC et al. (1999b) Alzheimer AP functions as a superoxide antioxidant in vitro and in vivo. Soc Neurosci Abstr 25, 14.

Bush AI, Moir RD, Rosenkranz KM, Tanzi RE (1995) Zinc and Alzheimer's disease— response. Science 268, 1921-3.

Bush AI, Multhaup C, Moir RD et al. (1993) A novel zinc(II) binding site modulates the function of the PA4 amyloid protein precursor of Alzheimer's disease. J Biol Chem 268, 16109-12.

Bush AI, Pettingell WH Jr, Paradis MD, Tanzi RE (1994a) Modulation of AP adhesiveness and secretase site cleavage by zinc. J Biol Chem 269, 12 152-8.

Bush AI, Pettingell, WH, de Paradis M, Tanzi RE, Wasco W (1994b) The amyloid P-protein precursor and its mammalian homologues. Evidence for a zinc-modulated heparin-binding superfamily. J Biol Chem 269, 26618-21.

Bush AI, Pettingell WH, Multhaup G et al. (1994c) Rapid induction of Alzheimer AP amyloid formation by zinc. Science 265, 1464-7.

Butterfield DA, Hensley K, Harris M, Mattson M, Carney J (1994) P-Amyloid peptide free radical fragments initiate synaptosomal lipoperoxidation in a sequence-specific fashion: implications to Alzheimer's disease. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 200, 710-15.

Ceballos-Picot I, Merad-Boudia M, Nicole A et al. (1996) Peripheral antioxidant enzyme activities and selenium in elderly subjects and in dementia of Alzheimer's type—place of the extracellular glutathione peroxidase. Free Radic Biol Med 20, 579-87.

Cherny RA, Legg JT, McLean CA et al. (1999) Aqueous dissolution of Alzheimer's disease AP amyloid deposits by biometal depletion. J Biol Chem 274, 23 223-8.

Crow JP, Sampson JB, Zhuang Y et al. (1997) Decreased zinc affinity of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-associated superoxide dismutase mutants leads to enhanced catalysis of tyrosine nitration by peroxynitrite. J Neurochem 69, 1936-44.

Cuajungco MP, Goldstein LE, Nunomura A et al. (2000) Evidence that the beta-amyloid plaques of Alzheimer's disease represent the redox-silencing and entombment of Aß by zinc. J Biol Chem 275, 19 439-42.

Du Y, Ni B, Glinn M et al. (1997) a2-Macroglobulin as Aß-amyloid peptide-binding plasma protein. J Neurochem 69, 299-305.

Estevez AG, Crow JP, Sampson JB et al. (1999) Induction of nitric oxide-dependent apoptosis in motor neurons by zinc-deficient superoxide dismutase. Science 286, 2498-500.

Frederikse PH, Garland D, Zigler JS, Piatigorsky J (1996) Oxidative stress increases production of ß-amyloid precursor protein and ß-amyloid (Aß) in mammalian lenses, and Aß has toxic-effects on lens epithelial cells. J Biol Chem 271, 10 16974.

Freedman JH, Ciriolo MR, Peisach J (1989) The role of glutathione in copper metabolism and toxicity. J Biol Chem 264, 5598-605.

Furuta A, Price DL, Pardo CA et al. (1995) Localization of superoxide dismutases in Alzheimer's disease and Down's syndrome neocortex and hippocampus. Am J Pathol 146, 357-67.

Glenner GG, Wong CW (1984) Alzheimer's disease: initial report of the purification and characterization of a novel cerebrovascular amyloid protein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 120, 885-90.

Goodman Y, Mattson MP (1994) Secreted forms of ß-amyloid precursor protein protect hippocampal neurons against amyloid ß-peptide-induced oxidative injury. Exp Neurol 128, 1-12.

Grundke-Iqbal I, Fleming J, Tung YC, Lassmann H, Iqbal K, Joshi JG (1990) Ferritin is a component of the neuritic (senile) plaque in Alzheimer dementia. Acta Neuropathol (Berl.) 81, 105-10.

Gurney ME, Pu H, Chiu AY et al. (1994) Motor neuron degeneration in mice that express a human Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase mutation [see comments] [published erratum appears in Science 1995, 269(5221), 149]. Science 264, 1772-5.

Halliwell B, Gutteridge JMC (1984) Oxygen toxicity, oxygen radicals, transition metals and disease. Biochem J 219, 1-14.

Harris ME, Hensley K, Butterfield DA, Leedle RA, Carney JM (1995) Direct evidence of oxidative injury produced by the Alzheimer's ß-amyloid peptide (1-40) in cultured hippocampal neurons. Exp Neurol 131, 193-202.

Hensley K, Hall N, Subramanian R et al. (1995) Brain regional correspondence between Alzheimer's disease histopathology and biomarkers of protein oxidation. J Neurochem 65, 2146-56.

Hilbich C, Kisters-Woike B, Reed J, Masters CL, Beyreuther K (1991) Aggregation and secondary structure of synthetic amyloid ß A4 peptides of Alzheimer's disease. J Mol Biol 218, 149-63.

Hottinger AF, Fine EG, Gurney ME, Zurn AD, Aebischer P (1997) The copper chelator D-penicillamine delays onset of disease and extends survival in a transgenic mouse model of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Eur J Neurosci 9, 1548-51.

Hsiao KK, Borchelt DR, Olson K et al. (1995) Age related CNS disorder and early death in transgenic FVB/N mice overexpressing Alzheimer amyloid precursor proteins. Neuron 15, 1203-18.

Huang X, Atwood CS, Hartshorn MA et al. (1999a) The Aß peptide of Alzheimer's disease directly produces hydrogen peroxide through metal ion reduction. Biochemistry 38, 7609-16.

Huang X, Atwood CS, Moir RD et al. (1997) Zinc-induced Alzheimer's Aß1-40 aggregation is mediated by conformational factors. J Biol Chem 272, 26464-70.

Huang X, Cuajungco MP, Atwood CS et al. (1999b) Cu(II) potentiation of Alzheimer Aß neurotoxicity: correlation with cell-free hydrogen peroxide production and metal reduction. J Biol Chem 274, 37 111-16.

Jarrett JT, Berger EP, Lansbury PT Jr (1993) The carboxy terminus of the ß amyloid protein is critical for the seeding of amyloid formation: implications for the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Biochemistry 32, 4693-7.

Kang J, Lemair HG, Unterbeck A et al. (1987) The precursor of Alzheimer's disease amyloid A4 protein resembles a cell-surface receptor. Nature 325, 733-6.

Koo EH, Park L, Selkoe DJ (1993) Amyloid ß-protein as a substrate interacts with extracellular matrix to promote neurite outgrowth. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90, 4748-52.

Lambert MP, Barlow AK, Chromy BA et al. (1998) Diffusible, nonfibrillar ligands derived from Aß 1-42 are potent central nervous system neurotoxins. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95, 6448-53.

Lee J-Y, Mook-Jung I, Koh J-Y (1995) Histochemically reactive zinc in plaques of the Swedish mutant beta-amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice. J Neuroscience 19(RC10), 1-5.

Levy E, Carman MD, Fernandez-Madrid IJ et al. (1990) Mutation of the Alzheimer's disease amyloid gene in hereditary cerebral hemorrhage, Dutch type. Science 248, 1124-6.

Liu ST, Howlett G, Barrow CJ (1999) Histidine-13 is a crucial residue in the zinc ion-induced aggregation of the Aß peptide of Alzheimer's disease. Biochemistry 38, 9373-8.

Loeffler DA, LeWitt PA, Juneau PL et al. (1996) Increased regional brain concentrations of ceruloplasmin in neurodegenerative disorders. Brain Res 738, 265-74.

Lovell MA, Robertson JD, Teesdale WJ et al. (1998) Copper, iron and zinc in Alzheimer's disease senile plaques. J Neurol Sci 158, 47-52.

Lyons TJ, Liu H, Goto JJ et al. (1996) Mutations in copper-zinc superoxide dismutase that cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis alter the zinc binding site and the redox behavior of the protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93, 12 240-44.

Masters CL, Multhaup G, Simms G, Pottgiesser J, Martins RN, Beyreuther K (1985) Neuronal origin of a cerebral amyloid: neurofibrillary tangles of Alzheimer's disease contain the same protein as the amyloid of plaque cores and blood vessels. EMBO J 4, 2757-63.

McLean C, Cherny R, Fraser F et al. (1999) Soluble pool of Aß amyloid as a determinant of severity of neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease. Ann Neurol 46, 860-66.

Mecocci P, MacGarvey U, Beal MF (1994) Oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA is increased in Alzheimer's disease. Ann Neurol 36, 747-51.

Miura T, Suzuki K, Kohata N, Takeuchi H (2000) Metal binding modes of Alzheimer's amlyoid ß-peptide in insoluble aggregates and soluble complexes. Biochemistry 39, 7024-31.

Moir RD, Atwood CS, Romano DM et al. (1999) Differential effects of apolipoprotein E isoforms on metal-induced aggregation of Aß using physiological concentrations. Biochemistry 38, 4595-603.

Murrell J, Farlow M, Ghetti B, Benson MD (1991) A mutation in the amyloid precursor protein associated with hereditary Alzheimer's disease. Science 254, 97-9.

Nagano S, Ogawa Y, Yanagihara T, Sakoda S (1999) Benefit of a combined treatment with trientine and ascorbate in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis model mice. Neurosci Lett 265, 159-62.

Nunomura A, Perry G, Pappolla MA et al. (1999) RNA oxidation is a prominent feature of vulnerable neurons in Alzheimer's disease. J Neurosci 19, 1959-64.

Pappolla MA, Omar RA, Kim KS, Robakis NK (1992) Immunohistochemical evidence of antioxidant stress in Alzheimer's disease. Am J Pathol 140, 621-8.

Prelli F, Castafio E, Glenner GG, Frangione B (1988) Differences between vascular and plaque core amyloid in Alzheimer's disease. J Neurochem 51, 648-51.

Rae TD, Schmidt PJ, Pufahl RA, Culotta VC, O'Halloran TV (1999) Undetectable intracellular free copper: the requirement of a copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase [see comments]. Science 284, 805-8.

Robinson SR, Noone DF, Kril J, Halliday GM (1995) Most amyloid plaques contain ferritin-rich cells. Alzheimer's Res 1, 191-6.

Roher AE, Lowenson JD, Clark S et al. (1993) Structural alterations in the peptide backbone of ß-amyloid core protein may account for its deposition and stability in Alzheimer's disease. J Biol Chem 268, 3072-83.

Rosen DR, Siddique T, Patterson D et al. (1993) Mutations in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase gene are associated with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Nature 362, 59-62.

Sano M, Ernesto C, Thomas RG et al. (1997) A controlled trial of selegiline, a-tocopherol, or both as treatment for Alzheimer's disease. The Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study. N Engl J Med 336, 1216-22.

Sayre LM, Perry G, Harris PL, Liu Y, Schubert KA, Smith MA (2000) In situ oxidative catalysis by neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease: a central role for bound transition metals. J Neurochem 74, 270-79.

Sayre LM, Zelasko DA, Harris PL, Perry G, Salomon, RG, Smith MA (1997) 4-Hydroxynonenal-derived advanced lipid peroxidation end products are increased in Alzheimer's disease. J Neurochem 68, 2092-7.

Scheuner D, Eckman C, Jensen M et al. (1996) Secreted amyloid ß-protein similar to that in the senile plaques of Alzheimer's disease is increased in vivo by the presenilin 1 and 2 and APP mutations linked to familial Alzheimer's disease. Nature Med 2, 864-70.

Smith CD, Carney JM, Starke-Reed PE et al. (1991) Excess brain protein oxidation and enzyme dysfunction in normal again and Alzheimer's disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88, 10540-43.

Smith MA, Harris PLR, Sayre LM, Perry G (1997a) Iron accumulation in Alzheimer's disease is a source of redox-generated free radicals. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94, 9866-8.

Smith MA, Hirai K, Hsiao K et al. (1998) Amyloid-beta deposition in Alzheimer transgenic mice is associated with oxidative stress. J Neurochem 70, 2212-15.

Smith MA, Kutty RK, Richey PL et al. (1994a) Heme oxygenase-1 is associated with the neurofibrillary pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Am J Pathol 145, 42-7.

Smith MA, Richey Harris PL, Sayre LM, Beckman JS, Perry G (1997b) Widespread peroxynitrite-mediated damage in Alzheimer's disease. J Neurosci 17, 2653-7.

Smith MA, Taneda, S, Richey PL et al. (1994b) Advanced Maillard reaction end products are associated with Alzheimer disease pathology. Proc Natl. Sci USA 91, 5710-14.

Suh SW, Jensen KB, Jensen MS et al. (2000) Histological evidence implicating zinc in Alzheimer's disease. Brain Res 852, 274-8.

Suzuki N, Cheung TT, Cai XD et al. (1994) An increased percentage of long amyloid ß protein secreted by familial amyloid ß protein precursor (beta APP717) mutants. Science 264, 1336-40.

Thomas T, Thomas G, McLendon C, Sutton T, Mullan M (1996) ß-Amyloid-mediated vasoactivity and vascular endothelial damage [see comments]. Nature 380, 168-71.

Tomiyama T, Shoji, A, Kataoka K, Suwa Y, Asano S, Kaneko H, Endo N (1996) Inhibition of amyloid ß protein aggregation and neurotoxicity by rifampicin. Its possible function as a hydroxyl radical scavenger. J Biol Chem 271, 6839-44.

Vaughan DW, Peters A (1981) The structure of neuritic plaques in the cerebral cortex of aged rats. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 40, 472-87.

Vigo-Pelfrey C, Lee D, Keim P, Lieberburg I, Schenk DB (1993) Characterization of ß-amyloid peptide from human cerebrospinal fluid. J Neurochem 61, 1965-8.

White AR, Bush AI, Beyreuther K, Masters CL, Cappai R (1999) Exacerbation of copper toxicity in primary neuronal cultures depleted of cellular glutathione. J Neurochem 72, 2092-8.

Wiedau-Pazos M, Goto JJ, Rabizadeh S et al. (1996) Altered reactivity of superoxide dismutase in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Science 271, 515-18.

Yankner BA, Duffy LK, Kirschner DA (1990) Neurotrophic and neurotoxic effects of amyloid ß protein: reversal by tachykinin neuropeptides. Science 250, 279-82.

Yates CM, Butterworth J, Tennant MC, Gordon A (1990) Enzyme activities in relation to pH and lactate in postmortem brain in Alzheimer-type and other dementia. J Neurochem 55, 1624-30.

Yim HS, Kang JH, Chock PB, Stadtman ER, Yim MB (1997) A familial amyotrphic lateral sclerosis-associated A4C Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase mutant has a lower Km for hydrogen peroxide. Correlation between clinical severity and the Km value. J Biol Chem 272, 8861-3.

Address for correspondence: Ashley I. Bush,

Laboratory for Oxidation Biology,

Genetics and Aging Unit,

Massachusetts General Hospital East,

Building 149, 13th Street,

Charlestown, MA 02129, USA

e-mail: [email protected]

Alzheimer's Disease: Advances in Etiology, Pathogenesis and Therapeutics Edited by Khalid Iqbal, Sangram S. Sisodia and Bengt Winblad Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons Ltd Print ISBN 0-471-52176-0 Online ISBN 0-470-84645-3

Unraveling Alzheimers Disease

Unraveling Alzheimers Disease

I leave absolutely nothing out! Everything that I learned about Alzheimer’s I share with you. This is the most comprehensive report on Alzheimer’s you will ever read. No stone is left unturned in this comprehensive report.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment