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Chapter 6

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Chapter 7

Genes and Violence: Do Mutations Cause Crime?

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Chapter 8

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Chapter 9

Mental Illness: How Much Is Genetic?

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Chapter 10 Personality: Were We Born This Way?

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Carrington M., Nelson, G., Martin, M., Kissner T., Vlahov D., Goedert J. J., Kaslow R., Buchbinder S., Hoots K., and O'Brian S.J. 1999. HLA and HIV-1: Heterozygote advantage and B*35-Cw*04 disadvantage. Science 283:1748-1752.

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Chapter 11 Talent: Nature or Nurture?

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Chapter 12 Gay Genes: What's the Evidence?

Burr C. 1996. A separate creation: The search for the biological origins of sexual orientation. Hyperion, New York.

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Bailey J. and Pillard R. 1991. A genetic study of male sexual orientation. Arch. Gen Psychol. 48:1089-1096.

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Hubbard R. Aug 2,1993. False genetic markers. The New York Times, p. A15.

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Chapter 13

Genetically Modified Organisms: The Next Green Revolution?

Bowers J. and Meredith C. 1997. The parentage of a classic wine grape. Cabernet sauvi-gnon. Nat. Genet. 16:84-87.

Bowers J., Boursiquot J-M., This P., Chu K., Johansson H., and Meredith, C. 1999. Historical genetics: The parentage of chardonnay, gamay, and other wine grapes of northeastern France. Science 285:1562-1565.

Estruch J., Carozzi N., Desai N., Duck N., Warren G., and Koziel M. 1997. Transgenic plants: An emerging approach to pest control. Bio/Technology 15:137-141.

Firth P. May 1999. Leaving a bad taste. Sci. Am. 280:34-35.

Luby J. 1997. Elegant nose and powerful body—Who were the parents of such nobility? Nat. Genet. 16:4-5.

Plant Biotechnology: Food & Feed. 1999. Special section. Science 285:367-393.

Reibstein L. and Beals G. March 10,1997. A cloned chop? Anyone? Newsweek, pp.58-59.

The Royal Society Advisory Committee on Genetically Modified Foods. Sept. 1998 Genetically Modified Plants for Food Use (www.royalsoc.ac.uk/st_po140.htm).

Thompson, P. 1997. Food biotechnology's challenge to cultural integrity and individual consent. Hastings Center Rep. 27:35-38.

Yoon C. May 20, 1999, Altered corn may imperil butterfly, researchers say. The New York Times, p.1

Yoon C. Nov 3, 1999. Squash with altered genes raises fears of'superweeds'. The New York Times, p. A1.

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Chapter 14

Transgenic Animals: New Foods and New Factories

Abbott A.1996. Transgenic trials under pressure in Germany. Nature 380:94.

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Allen S. Aug. 30, 1999. Some aren't hooked on superfish 'revolution' Boston Globe, p. A1.

Genzyme Transgenics. The remarks about Genzyme Transgenics are based in part on remarks by its CEO, James Geraghty, at the 1997 meeting of the Biotechnology Industry Organization in Houston, Texas.

Gershon D. 1993. Prospects for growth hormone turn sour. Nature 364:565.

Juskevich J.C. and Guyer C.G. 1990. Bovine growth hormone: Human food safety evaluation. Science 249:875-884.

Miller H. 1993. Foods of the future: the new biotechnology and FDA regulation. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 269:910-912.

O'Donnell P. October 6,1996. EU concern over genetically modified foods. Bioworld, pp.4, 6.

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Chapter 15

Endangered Species: New Genes Beat Extinction

Plotkin, M.1993. Tales of a shaman's apprentice. Viking, New York. Wilson E. 0.1992. The diversity of life. Harvard Belknap Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Angier N. Feb. 28,1995. Orangutan hybrid, bred to save species, now seen as pollutant.

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Griffiths R. and Tiwari, B. 1995. Sex of the last wild Spix's macaw. Nature 375:454.

Holden C. 1997. Indians look at their big cats' genes. Science 278:807.

The Blue Macaws at www.bluemacaws.org

Florida Panther Net at www.panther.state.fl.us/

Orangutan Foundation International at www.orangutan.org

Chapter 16

Xenotransplantation: Animal Organs to Save Humans

The Advisory Group on the Ethics of Xenotransplantation. 1997. Animal tissue into humans. Department of Health, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, United Kingdom.

Cooper D. and Ye Y. 1991. Experience with clinical heart xenotransplantation. In Xenotransplantation: The transplantation of organs and tissues between species. SpringerVerlag, Berlin, pp.541-557.

Chapman, L. E. 1995. Xenotransplantation and xenogeneic infections. N. Engl. J. Med. 333:1498-1501.

Clark M. Summer 1999. This little piggy went to market: The xenotransplantation and xenozoonoses debate. J. Law Med. Ethics 27:137-152.

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Lehrman S. 1995. AIDS patient given baboon bone marrow. Nature 378:756.

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Weiss R. 1998. Science, medicine, and the future: Xenotransplantation. Br. Med. J. 317:931-932.

The Islet Foundation, Xenotransplantation Subcommittee at www.islet.org/46.htm

Chapter 17

Cystic Fibrosis: Should Everyone Be Tested?

Colten, H. 1990. Screening for cystic fibrosis. N. Engl. J. Med. 256:328-329.

Elias S. and Annas G. 1994. Generic consent for genetic screening. N. Engl. J. Med. 330:1611-1613.

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Livingstone J. 1993. Antenatal screening for cystic fibrosis: A trial of the couple model. Br. Med. J. 308:1459-1461.

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Roberts L. 1990. CF screening delayed for awhile, perhaps forever. Science 247: 1059-1065.

Sherif G., Brigman K., Koller B., Boucher R., and Stutts M. 1994. Cystic fibrosis heterozygote resistance to cholera toxin in the cystic fibrosis mouse model. Science 266:107-109.

Watson, J.D., Gilman, M., Wikowski, J., and Zoller M. 1992. Recombinant DNA, 2nd edition, p. 527. W.H. Freeman and Company, New York.

Wertz D. 1994. Attitudes toward abortion among parents of children with cystic fi-brosis. Am. J. Pub. Health 81:992-996.

Wilfond B. and Fost N. 1991. The cystic fibrosis gene: Medical and social implications for heterozygote detection. J. Am. Med.Assoc. 263:2777-2783.

Chapter 18 Breast Cancer: The Burden of Knowing

Weinberg R. 1996. Racing to the beginning of the road: The search for the origin ofcan-cer. Harmony Books, New York.

ASCO Public Issues Committee. 1996. Statement of the American Society of Clinical Oncology: Genetic testing for cancer susceptibility. J. Clin. Oncol. 14:1730-1736.

Deville P. 1999. BRCA1 and BRCA2 testing: weighing the demand against the benefits. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 64:943-948.

Ford D., Easton D., and Peto J. 1995. Estimates of the gene frequency of BRCA1 and its contribution to breast and ovarian cancer incidence. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 57:1457-1462.

Hartge P., Struewing J., Wacholder S., Brody L., and Tucker M. 1999. The prevalence of common BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations among Ashkenazi jews. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 64:963-970.

Hoskins K., Stopfer J.E., Calzone K.A., Merajver S.D., Rebbeck T.R., Graber J.E., and Weber B.L. 1995. Assessment and counseling for women with a family history of breast cancer. A guide for clinicians. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 253:577-585.

Lerman C. 1996. Emotional and behavioral responses to genetic testing for susceptibility to cancer. Oncology 10:191-199.

Scientific American. September 1996. What You Need to Know About Cancer.

Struewing J., Abeliovich D., Peretz T., Avishai N., Kaback M., Collins F., and Brody L. 1995. The carrier frequency of the BRCA1 185delAG mutation is approximately 1 percent in Ashkenzi Jewish individuals. Nat. Genet. 11:198-200.

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Chapter 19

Alzheimer Disease: Are You At High Risk?

Pollen D. 1993. Hannah's heirs: The quest for the genetic origins of Alzheimer's disease. Oxford University Press, New York.

Post S. and Whitehouse P., eds. 1998. Genetic testing for Alzheimer disease: Ethical and clinical issues, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

American College of Medical Genetics/American Society of Human Genetics Working Group on ApoE and Alzheimer Disease. 1995. Statement on use of apolipoprotein E testing for alzheimer disease J. Am. Med. Assoc. 274:1627-1629.

Goate A., Charter-Harlin M., Mullan M., Brown J., Crawford F., Fidani L., Giuffra L., Haynes A., Irving N., James L, Mant R., Newton P., Rooke K., Roques P., Talbot C., Pericak-Vance M., Roses A., Williamson R., Rossor M., Owen M., and Hardy J. 1991. Segregation of a missense mutation in the amyloid precursor protein gene with familial Alzheimer's disease. Nature 349:704-706.

Kolata G. October 24,1995. If tests hint Alzheimer's should a patient be told? The New York Times, p. 1.

Levy-Lahad E., Wijsman E., Nemens E., Anderson L., Goddard A., Weber J., Bird T., and Schellenberg G. 1995. A familial Alzheimer's disease locus on chromosome 1. Science 269:970-977.

Mayeux R. and Schupf N. 1995. Apolipoprotein E and Alzheimer's disease: The implications of progress in molecular medicine. Am. J. Pub. Health 85:1280-1284.

Pollen D.A. 1993. Hannah's heirs. Oxford University Press, New York.

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Roses A. 1995. Apolipoprotein E genotyping in the differential diagnosis, not prediction, of Alzheimer's disease. Ann. Neurol. 38:6-14.

Schellenberg G., Bird T., Wijsman E., Orr H., Anderson L., Nemens E., White J., Bon-

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Strittmatter W., Saunders A., Schmechel D., Pericak-Vance M., Enghild J., Salvesen G., and Roses A. 1993. Apolipoprotein E: High affinity binding to b-amyloid and increased frequency of type 4 allele in late-onset familial Alzheimer disease. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 90:1977-1981.

Warrick P. Apr. 4, 1997. Nancy Reagan alone with memories for two. Boston Globe, p. B6.

Chapter 20

Gene Therapy: The Dream and the Reality

Annas G. and Elias S., eds. 1992. Gene mapping: Using law and ethics as guides. Oxford University Press, New York.

Culver K. 1994. Gene therapy: A handbook for physicians. Mary Ann Liebert Publishers, New York.

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Thompson L. 1994. Correcting the code: Inventing the genetic cure for the human body. Simon and Schuster, New York.

Miller A. 1992. Human gene therapy comes of age. Nature 357:455-460.

Mulligan R. 1993. The basic science of gene therapy. Science 260:926-932.

Stolberg S. November 28, 1999. The biotech death of Jesse Gelsinger. The New York Times Magazine, pp.137-150.

Sugarman J. 1999. Ethical considerations in leaping from bench to bedside. Science 285:2071-2072.

Wade N. September 30, 1999. With a death, advocates of gene therapy express concerns for future of the field.The New York Times, p. A20.

Walters L. 1986. The ethics of human gene therapy. Nature 320:225-227.

Wivel N. and Walters L. 1993. Germ-line gene modification and disease prevention; some medical and ethical perspectives. Science 262:533-538.

Zanjani E. and Anderson W. 1999. Prospects for in utero human gene therapy. Science 285:2084-2088.

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Chapter 21

Genetic Testing and Privacy: Who Should Be Able to Know Your Genes?

Beauchamp T. and Childress J. 1994. Principles of biomedical ethics, 4th ed. Oxford University Press, New York.

Holtzman N. 1989. Proceed with caution: Predicting genetic risks in the recombinant DNA era. Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore.

Rothstein M., ed. 1997. Genetic secrets: Protecting privacy and confidentiality in the genetic era. Yale University Press, New Haven.

Touchette N., Holtzman N.A, Davis J.D., and Feetham S. 1997. Toward the 21st century: Incorporating genetics into primary health care. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, New York.

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Fears R. and Poste G. 1999. Building population genetics resources using the UK NHS. Science 284:267-268.

Fuller B., Ellis Kahn M-J., Barr P., Crowley E., Garber J., Mansoura M., P., Murray J., Phillips, J., Rothenberg, K., Rothstein M., Stopfer J., Swergold G., Weber B., Collins F., and Hudson K.1999. Privacy in genetics research. Science 285:1359-1361.

McEwen J. and Reilly P. 1992. State legislative efforts to regulate use and potential misuse of genetic information. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 51:637-647.

Nelkin D. and Tancredi L. 1991. Classify and control: Genetic information in the schools. Am. J. Law Med. 17:51-75.

Wertz D., Fanos J., and Reilly P. 1994. Genetic testing for children and adolescents: Who decides? J. Am. Med. Assoc. 272:875-881.

Chapter 22 Frozen Embryos: People or Property?

Human Fertilisation Embryology Authority. 1995. Code of Practice. London. Radin M. 1996. Contested commodities. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

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Committee of Inquiry into Human Fertilisation and Embryology. July 28, 1984. Recommendations of the Warnock Committee. Lancet 2:217-218. The Ethics Committee of the American Fertility Society. 1990. Ethical considerations of the new reproductive technologies. Fertil. Steril. 53:1S-104S. Goldberg C. November 5,1999. Massachusetts case is latest to ask court to decide fate of frozen embryos. The New York Times, p. A19. Margolick D. June 27,1984. Legal rights of embryos. The New York Times, p.17. News.1995. Embryo research tests NIH's mettle. Nat. Med. 1:5.

Schwarz J. September 28,1994. Panel backs funding of embryo research; abortion foes denounce proposed rules. The Washington Post, p. A1. Simpson J. and Carson S. 1992. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis. N. Engl. J. Med. 327:951-953.

Yardley, J. April 17,1999. Investigators say embryologist knew he erred in egg mix-up. The New York Times, p. A13.

Chapter 23 Cloning: Why Is Everyone Opposed?

Di Berardino, M. 1997. Genomic potential of differentiated cells. Columbia University Press, New York.

Di Berardino, M. 1998. Cloning: Past, present, and the exciting future. Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. Breakthroughs in Bioscience Series (www.faseb.org/opar/cloning).

Report and Recommendations of the National Bioethics Advisory Commission 1997. Cloning human beings, Rockville, Maryland.

Editorial. 1997. Clone encounters. Nat. Genet. 15:323-324.

Kato Y., Tani T., Sotomaru Y., Kurokawa K., Kato J., Doguchi H., Yasue H., and Tsun-oda Y. 1998. Eight calves cloned from somatic cells of a single adult. Science 282: 2095-2098.

Nature, vol. 385. February 27,1997. Front cover.

Robertson J. 1999. Two models of human cloning. Hofstra Law Rev. 27:609-639.

Robertson J. 1999. Ethics and policy in embryonic stem cell research. Kennedy Inst. Ethics J. 9:109-136.

Shapiro H. 1999. Ethical dilemmas and stem cell research. Science 285:2065.

Vogel G. 1999. Capturing the promise of youth. Science 286:2238-2239.

Wakayama T., Perry A., Zuccotti S., Johnson K., and Yanagimachi R. 1998. Full-term development of mice from enucleated oocytes injected with cumulus cell nuclei. Nature 394:369-374.

Wilmut I., Schnieke A., Mcwhir J., Kind A., and Campbell K. 1997. Viable offspring derived from fetal and adult mammalian cells. Nature 385:810-813.

The Joint Steering Committee for Public Policy at www.jscpp.org/jscpp/Stemcell.htm

Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA) at www. phrma.org/genomics/cloning/stem.html

Chapter 24

Eugenics: Can We Improve the Gene Pool?

Kevles, D. 1985. In the name of eugenics. Knopf. New York.

Ludmerer K. 1972. Genetics and American Society, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

Osborn F. 1968. The future of human heredity: An introduction to eugenics in modern society. Weybright and Talley, New York.

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Reilly, P. 1990. The surgical solution: A history of involuntary sterilization in the United States. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

Board of Directors of the American Society of Human Genetics. 1999. Eugenics and the misuse of genetic information to restrict reproductive freedom. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 64:335-338.

Editorial, September 12,1993. Wanted: Smart sperm. Boston Globe, pp.1, 39.

Gill M. March, 1995. The genius babies. Ladies Home Journal pp.76-82.

Horgan J. June 1993. Eugenics revisited. Sci. Am. 268:122-131.

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