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Abraham Lincoln: Did He Have Marfan Syndrome?

Pyeritz R. and Conant J. 1989. The Marfan syndrome, 3rd ed. National Marfan Foundation, Port Washington, New York.

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McKusick V. 1991. The defect in Marfan syndrome. Nature 352:279-281.

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Chapter 2

Kings and Queens: Genetic Diseases in Royal Families

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Chapter 3

Toulouse-Lautrec: An Artist despite His Genes

Ackroyd C. 1989. Toulouse-Lautrec. Chartwell Books, London. Frey J. 1994. Toulouse-Lautrec: A life. Viking, New York.

Angier N. June 6,1995. What ailed Toulouse-Lautrec? Scientists zero in on a key gene.

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Chapter 4

Old Bones: DNA and Skeletons

Massie R. 1995. The Romanovs: The final chapter. Johnathan Cape, London.

Editorial. 1996. Romanovs find closure in DNA. Nat. Genet. 12:339-340.

Gill P., Ivanov P., Klimpton C., Piercy R., Benson N., Tully G., Evett I., Hagelberg E., and Sullivan K. 1994. Identification of the remains of the Romanov family by DNA analysis. Nat. Genet. 6:130-135.

Goodman A. September 7,1999. A furor for Velazquez: His art but also his bones. The New York Times, p.C2.

Ivanov P., Wadhams M., Roby R., Holland M., Weedn V., and Parsons T. 1996. Mitochondrial DNA sequence heteroplasmy in the Grand Duke of Russia Georgij Romanov establishes the authenticity of the remains of Tsar Nicholas II. Nat. Genet. 12:417-420.

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Wade N. May 9,1999. DNA backs a tribe's tradition of early descent from the Jews. The New York Times, p. C2.

Chapter 5

DNA Detectives: The New DNA Evidence

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Butterfield F. February 5, 1996. New clues in an old murder case: DNA evidence suggests Sheppard did not kill his wife in '54. The New York Times, p. B1.

Hagleberg E., Gray I. and Jeffreys A. 1991. Identification of the skeletal remains of a murder victim by DNA analysis. Nature 352:427-429.

Menotti-Raymond M., David V., and O'Brien S. 1997. Pet cat hair implicates murder suspect. Nature 386:774.

Wade N. May 9,1999. DNA backs a tribe's tradition of early descent from the Jews. The New York Times, p.1.

Chapter 6

Cold Hits: The Rise of DNA Felon Databanks

Wambaugh J. 1989. The blooding. William Morrow, New York.

Ballantyne J. 1997. Mass disaster genetics. Nat. Genet. 15:329-330.

Dedman B. October 7, 1999. A rape defendant with no identitity, but a DNA profile. The New York Times, p.1.

Henry L. November, 1993. Evidence at 80 Below. Minnesota Monthly, pp. 56-59, 110-114.

McEwen J. 1995. "State DNA forensic databanking: Legal, ethical, and social policy implications and recommendations for the future." Ph.D. thesis, UMI Dissertation Services (UMI Number 9629778). University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

McEwen J. and Reilly P. 1994. A review of state legislation on DNA forensic databanking. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 54:941-958.

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Nowell P. November 5, 1999. Police association seeks DNA testing of all suspects. Boston Globe, p.A24.

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Chapter 7

Genes and Violence: Do Mutations Cause Crime?

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Coffey M. 1993. The genetic defense: excuse or explanation? William and Mary Law Rev. 35:353-398.

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Hook E. 1973. Behavioral implications of the human XYY genotype. Science 179:139-145.

Jacobs P., Brinton M., Melville M., and Norton P. 1965. Aggressive behavior, mental subnormality and the XYY male. Nature 208:1351-1353.

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Mobley v. Georgia 265 Ga. 292, 455 S.E. 2d 81 (1995).

Restak R. July/August 1992. See no evil: The neurological defense would blame violence on the damaged brain. The Sciences, p. 16-21.

Wilson J.Q. and Herrnstein R.J. 1985. Crime & Human Nature. Simon and Schuster, New York.

Witkin P. and Mednick C. 1976. Criminality in XYY and XXY men. Science 193:54-55.

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Chapter 8

Wrongful Birth: What Should the Doctor Know?

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Frankel M. and Teich A., eds. 1994. The genetic frontier: Ethics, law, and policy, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC.

Capron A. 1973. Informed decision making in genetic counseling: A dissent to the wrongful life debate. Indiana Law J. 48:581-624.

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Vaccaro v. Milunsky 406 Mass. 777 (1990).

Wertz D. and Fletcher J. 1991. Privacy and disclosure in medical genetics examined in an ethics of care. Bioethics 5:212-232.

Chapter 9

Mental Illness: How Much Is Genetic?

Tsuang M. and Faraone S. 1990. The genetics of mood disorders. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

Vandenberg S., Singer S. and Pauls, D. 1986. The heredity of behavior disorders in adults and children. Plenum Press, New York.

Winokur G.1991. Mania and depression: A classification of syndrome and disease. Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore.

Egeland, J. Gerhard D., Pauls D., Sussex J., Kidd K., Allen C., Hostette A., and Hous-

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Lander E. 1988. Splitting schizophrenia. Nature 336:105-106.

Pauls D. 1993. Behavioral disorders: Lessons in linkage. Nat. Genet. 3:45.

Risch N. and Botstein D. 1996. A manic depressive history. Nat. Genet. 12:351-353.

Schmeck H. November 7,1989. Scientists now doubt they found faulty gene linked to mental illness. The New York Times, p.C3.

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Chapter 10 Personality: Were We Born This Way?

Bouchard T. 1994. Genes, environment, and personality. Science 264:1700-1701.

Bouchard T., Lykken D., McGue M., Segal N., and Tellegen A. 1990. Sources of human psychological differences: The Minnesota study of twins reared apart. Science 250:223-228.

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Cloninger R., Adolffson R., and Svrakic N. 1996. Mapping genes for human personality. Nat. Genet. 12:3-4.

Ebstein R. Novick O., Umansky R., Priel B., Osher Y., Blaine D., Bennett E., Nemanov M., and Belmaker R. 1996. Dopamine D4 receptor (D4DR) exon III polymorphism associated with the human personality trait of novelty seeking. Nat. Genet. 12:78-80.

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Eiberg H., Berendt I., and Mohr J. 1995. Assignment of dominant inherited nocturnal enuresis (ENUR1) to chromosome 13q. Nat Genet. 10:354-356.

Hamer D. 1996. The heritability of happiness. Nat. Genet. 14:125-126.

Plomin R. 1990. The role of inheritance in behavior. Science 248:183-188.

Plomin R., Owen M., and McGuffin P. 1994. The genetic basis of complex human behaviors. Science 264:1733-1739.

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Chapter 11 Talent: Nature or Nurture?

Herrnstein R. and Murray C. 1994. The bell curve. Free Press, New York.

Sokal, Michael ed. 1990. Psychological testing and American society: 1890-1930. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, New Jersey.

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Adamson L. Aug. 17, 1997. When creativity runs in the family. The New York Times, Sec 2, p.1.

Blakeslee S. Nov. 20, 1990. Perfect pitch: The key may lie in the genes. The New York Times. p. C11.

Browne M. June 6, 1997. Genes a lifelong factor in intelligence. The New York Times, p.A16.

Conrad P. June 6,1993. Natasha Richardson and the Redgrave Dynasty. The New York Times Magazine, p.40, 52-55.

Glanz J. November 5, 1999. Study links perfect pitch to tonal language. The New York Times, p.1.

Goleman D. March 7, 1995. 75 years later, study still tracking geniuses. The New York Times, p. C1.

Gould S. 1990. The mismeasure of man. Norton, New York

McClearn G., Johansson B., Berg S., Pedersen N., Ahern F., Petrell S., and Plomin R. 1997. Substantial genetic influence on cognitive abilities in twins 80 or more years old. Science 276:1560-1563.

Plomin R. 1999. Genetics and general cognitive ability. Nature (Suppl.) 402:C25-29.

Wade N. Sept. 7,1999. Of smart mice and an even smarter man. The New York Times, p.1F.

Wright L. Aug. 7, 1995. Double mystery. The New Yorker, pp. 45, 53-59.

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Chapter 12 Gay Genes: What's the Evidence?

Burr C. 1996. A separate creation: The search for the biological origins of sexual orientation. Hyperion, New York.

Hamer D. and Copeland, P. 1994. The science of desire: The search for the gay gene and the biology of behavior. Simon & Schuster, New York.

Bailey J. 1995. Sexual orientatation revolution. Nat. Genet. 11:33-34.

Bailey J. and Pillard R. 1991. A genetic study of male sexual orientation. Arch. Gen Psychol. 48:1089-1096.

Barinaga M. 1991. Is homosexuality biological? Science 256:956-957.

Burr C. March 1993. Homosexuality and biology. Atlantic Monthly, p.47.

Goode E. April 23,1999. Study questions gene influence on male homosexuality. The New York Times, p. A19.

Hamer D., Hu S., Magnuson, V., Hu N., and Pattatucci M. 1993. A linkage between DNA markers on the X chromosome and male sexual orientation. Science 261:321-327.

Hubbard R. Aug 2,1993. False genetic markers. The New York Times, p. A15.

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Chapter 13

Genetically Modified Organisms: The Next Green Revolution?

Bowers J. and Meredith C. 1997. The parentage of a classic wine grape. Cabernet sauvi-gnon. Nat. Genet. 16:84-87.

Bowers J., Boursiquot J-M., This P., Chu K., Johansson H., and Meredith, C. 1999. Historical genetics: The parentage of chardonnay, gamay, and other wine grapes of northeastern France. Science 285:1562-1565.

Estruch J., Carozzi N., Desai N., Duck N., Warren G., and Koziel M. 1997. Transgenic plants: An emerging approach to pest control. Bio/Technology 15:137-141.

Firth P. May 1999. Leaving a bad taste. Sci. Am. 280:34-35.

Luby J. 1997. Elegant nose and powerful body—Who were the parents of such nobility? Nat. Genet. 16:4-5.

Plant Biotechnology: Food & Feed. 1999. Special section. Science 285:367-393.

Reibstein L. and Beals G. March 10,1997. A cloned chop? Anyone? Newsweek, pp.58-59.

The Royal Society Advisory Committee on Genetically Modified Foods. Sept. 1998 Genetically Modified Plants for Food Use (

Thompson, P. 1997. Food biotechnology's challenge to cultural integrity and individual consent. Hastings Center Rep. 27:35-38.

Yoon C. May 20, 1999, Altered corn may imperil butterfly, researchers say. The New York Times, p.1

Yoon C. Nov 3, 1999. Squash with altered genes raises fears of'superweeds'. The New York Times, p. A1.

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Chapter 14

Transgenic Animals: New Foods and New Factories

Abbott A.1996. Transgenic trials under pressure in Germany. Nature 380:94.

A/F Protein, Inc. The material about A/F Protein, Inc., is partly based on remarks by its CEO, Eliot Entis at the 1997 meeting of the Biotechnology Industry Organization in Houston.

Allen S. Aug. 30, 1999. Some aren't hooked on superfish 'revolution' Boston Globe, p. A1.

Genzyme Transgenics. The remarks about Genzyme Transgenics are based in part on remarks by its CEO, James Geraghty, at the 1997 meeting of the Biotechnology Industry Organization in Houston, Texas.

Gershon D. 1993. Prospects for growth hormone turn sour. Nature 364:565.

Juskevich J.C. and Guyer C.G. 1990. Bovine growth hormone: Human food safety evaluation. Science 249:875-884.

Miller H. 1993. Foods of the future: the new biotechnology and FDA regulation. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 269:910-912.

O'Donnell P. October 6,1996. EU concern over genetically modified foods. Bioworld, pp.4, 6.

Torrado C., Bastian W., Wisniewski K., and Castells S. 1991. Treatment of children with Down syndrome and growth retardation with recombinant human growth hormone. J. Pediatr. 119:478-483.

Chapter 15

Endangered Species: New Genes Beat Extinction

Plotkin, M.1993. Tales of a shaman's apprentice. Viking, New York. Wilson E. 0.1992. The diversity of life. Harvard Belknap Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Angier N. Feb. 28,1995. Orangutan hybrid, bred to save species, now seen as pollutant.

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Griffiths R. and Tiwari, B. 1995. Sex of the last wild Spix's macaw. Nature 375:454.

Holden C. 1997. Indians look at their big cats' genes. Science 278:807.

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Florida Panther Net at

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Chapter 16

Xenotransplantation: Animal Organs to Save Humans

The Advisory Group on the Ethics of Xenotransplantation. 1997. Animal tissue into humans. Department of Health, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, United Kingdom.

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Chapman, L. E. 1995. Xenotransplantation and xenogeneic infections. N. Engl. J. Med. 333:1498-1501.

Clark M. Summer 1999. This little piggy went to market: The xenotransplantation and xenozoonoses debate. J. Law Med. Ethics 27:137-152.

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Lehrman S. 1995. AIDS patient given baboon bone marrow. Nature 378:756.

Public Health Service. September 23, 1996. Draft public health service guidelines on infectious disease issues in xenotransplantation; notice. Federal Register. pp. 49919-49932.

Vanderpool H. Summer 1999. Commentary: A critique of Clark's frightening xenotransplantation scenario. J. Law Med. Ethics 27:153-157.

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Chapter 17

Cystic Fibrosis: Should Everyone Be Tested?

Colten, H. 1990. Screening for cystic fibrosis. N. Engl. J. Med. 256:328-329.

Elias S. and Annas G. 1994. Generic consent for genetic screening. N. Engl. J. Med. 330:1611-1613.

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Sherif G., Brigman K., Koller B., Boucher R., and Stutts M. 1994. Cystic fibrosis heterozygote resistance to cholera toxin in the cystic fibrosis mouse model. Science 266:107-109.

Watson, J.D., Gilman, M., Wikowski, J., and Zoller M. 1992. Recombinant DNA, 2nd edition, p. 527. W.H. Freeman and Company, New York.

Wertz D. 1994. Attitudes toward abortion among parents of children with cystic fi-brosis. Am. J. Pub. Health 81:992-996.

Wilfond B. and Fost N. 1991. The cystic fibrosis gene: Medical and social implications for heterozygote detection. J. Am. Med.Assoc. 263:2777-2783.

Chapter 18 Breast Cancer: The Burden of Knowing

Weinberg R. 1996. Racing to the beginning of the road: The search for the origin ofcan-cer. Harmony Books, New York.

ASCO Public Issues Committee. 1996. Statement of the American Society of Clinical Oncology: Genetic testing for cancer susceptibility. J. Clin. Oncol. 14:1730-1736.

Deville P. 1999. BRCA1 and BRCA2 testing: weighing the demand against the benefits. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 64:943-948.

Ford D., Easton D., and Peto J. 1995. Estimates of the gene frequency of BRCA1 and its contribution to breast and ovarian cancer incidence. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 57:1457-1462.

Hartge P., Struewing J., Wacholder S., Brody L., and Tucker M. 1999. The prevalence of common BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations among Ashkenazi jews. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 64:963-970.

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Lerman C. 1996. Emotional and behavioral responses to genetic testing for susceptibility to cancer. Oncology 10:191-199.

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Struewing J., Abeliovich D., Peretz T., Avishai N., Kaback M., Collins F., and Brody L. 1995. The carrier frequency of the BRCA1 185delAG mutation is approximately 1 percent in Ashkenzi Jewish individuals. Nat. Genet. 11:198-200.

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Chapter 19

Alzheimer Disease: Are You At High Risk?

Pollen D. 1993. Hannah's heirs: The quest for the genetic origins of Alzheimer's disease. Oxford University Press, New York.

Post S. and Whitehouse P., eds. 1998. Genetic testing for Alzheimer disease: Ethical and clinical issues, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

American College of Medical Genetics/American Society of Human Genetics Working Group on ApoE and Alzheimer Disease. 1995. Statement on use of apolipoprotein E testing for alzheimer disease J. Am. Med. Assoc. 274:1627-1629.

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Kolata G. October 24,1995. If tests hint Alzheimer's should a patient be told? The New York Times, p. 1.

Levy-Lahad E., Wijsman E., Nemens E., Anderson L., Goddard A., Weber J., Bird T., and Schellenberg G. 1995. A familial Alzheimer's disease locus on chromosome 1. Science 269:970-977.

Mayeux R. and Schupf N. 1995. Apolipoprotein E and Alzheimer's disease: The implications of progress in molecular medicine. Am. J. Pub. Health 85:1280-1284.

Pollen D.A. 1993. Hannah's heirs. Oxford University Press, New York.

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Schellenberg G., Bird T., Wijsman E., Orr H., Anderson L., Nemens E., White J., Bon-

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Strittmatter W., Saunders A., Schmechel D., Pericak-Vance M., Enghild J., Salvesen G., and Roses A. 1993. Apolipoprotein E: High affinity binding to b-amyloid and increased frequency of type 4 allele in late-onset familial Alzheimer disease. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 90:1977-1981.

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Chapter 20

Gene Therapy: The Dream and the Reality

Annas G. and Elias S., eds. 1992. Gene mapping: Using law and ethics as guides. Oxford University Press, New York.

Culver K. 1994. Gene therapy: A handbook for physicians. Mary Ann Liebert Publishers, New York.

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Thompson L. 1994. Correcting the code: Inventing the genetic cure for the human body. Simon and Schuster, New York.

Miller A. 1992. Human gene therapy comes of age. Nature 357:455-460.

Mulligan R. 1993. The basic science of gene therapy. Science 260:926-932.

Stolberg S. November 28, 1999. The biotech death of Jesse Gelsinger. The New York Times Magazine, pp.137-150.

Sugarman J. 1999. Ethical considerations in leaping from bench to bedside. Science 285:2071-2072.

Wade N. September 30, 1999. With a death, advocates of gene therapy express concerns for future of the field.The New York Times, p. A20.

Walters L. 1986. The ethics of human gene therapy. Nature 320:225-227.

Wivel N. and Walters L. 1993. Germ-line gene modification and disease prevention; some medical and ethical perspectives. Science 262:533-538.

Zanjani E. and Anderson W. 1999. Prospects for in utero human gene therapy. Science 285:2084-2088.

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Chapter 21

Genetic Testing and Privacy: Who Should Be Able to Know Your Genes?

Beauchamp T. and Childress J. 1994. Principles of biomedical ethics, 4th ed. Oxford University Press, New York.

Holtzman N. 1989. Proceed with caution: Predicting genetic risks in the recombinant DNA era. Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore.

Rothstein M., ed. 1997. Genetic secrets: Protecting privacy and confidentiality in the genetic era. Yale University Press, New Haven.

Touchette N., Holtzman N.A, Davis J.D., and Feetham S. 1997. Toward the 21st century: Incorporating genetics into primary health care. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, New York.

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Fears R. and Poste G. 1999. Building population genetics resources using the UK NHS. Science 284:267-268.

Fuller B., Ellis Kahn M-J., Barr P., Crowley E., Garber J., Mansoura M., P., Murray J., Phillips, J., Rothenberg, K., Rothstein M., Stopfer J., Swergold G., Weber B., Collins F., and Hudson K.1999. Privacy in genetics research. Science 285:1359-1361.

McEwen J. and Reilly P. 1992. State legislative efforts to regulate use and potential misuse of genetic information. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 51:637-647.

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Chapter 22 Frozen Embryos: People or Property?

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Chapter 23 Cloning: Why Is Everyone Opposed?

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Nature, vol. 385. February 27,1997. Front cover.

Robertson J. 1999. Two models of human cloning. Hofstra Law Rev. 27:609-639.

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Chapter 24

Eugenics: Can We Improve the Gene Pool?

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Editorial, September 12,1993. Wanted: Smart sperm. Boston Globe, pp.1, 39.

Gill M. March, 1995. The genius babies. Ladies Home Journal pp.76-82.

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