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Abortion ethics of genetic testing and selective abortion, 153-154, 220-221, 267, 274, 308 negative eugenics, 312 selective abortion for gender, 308-309 Abramov, S., 40

Acting, heredity of talent, 136-137 Acute intermittent porphyria features, 20

George III and family members, 19-22

historical significance in British royal family, 22-23 remedies of colonial times, 21-22 Adenosine deaminase deficiency, gene therapy, 253-254 Agrobacterium tumefaciens, gene transfer in plants, 160-161, 166 Alcoholism, heredity, 36-37 Alexis, 25 Alzheimer disease apolipoprotein E4 role, 240-242 screening, 242-245, 269 Down syndrome association, 239 features, 235-236 gene localization, 239-240 genetic testing, 242-245, 268-269 heredity, 236

historical perspective, 236-240 linkage analysis, 238-239, 241 Amish genetic mapping advantages, 105 manic-depressive illness, 105-106, 109

Anastasia, 44

Ancestry, generations and progenitor number, 44 Anderson, F., 249, 252-254 Antithrombin-III, production in transgenic goat milk, 180-182

Apolipoprotein E4

Alzheimer disease role, 240-242 screening, 242-245, 269 Artistic talent, heredity, 36, 135

Bach, musical talent of family, 135 Bacillus thuringiensis, insecticide use,

159-162, 164-165 Bailey, J. M., 146-147 Banana, vaccine production, 168 Beamish, D., 53, 57 Beaudet, A., 218 Bed-wetting emotional component, 121-122 genetics, 121-123 Bones

DNA extraction, 41 laws governing human remains, 49 marrow, baboon transplants into AIDS patients, 206-207 Booth, John Wilkes, 5, 11-12, 49 BRCA1 Ashkenazim mutations, 230 cancer risk with mutation, 227 discovery, 226-227, 229 heredity of mutations, 228 male cancer risks, 228 testing for mutations, 227, 229, 231 BRCA2 Ashkenazim mutations, 230 discovery, 226-227, 229 Breakfield, X., 86 Breast cancer BRCA1 Ashkenazim mutations, 230 cancer risk with mutation, 227 discovery, 226-227, 229 heredity of mutations, 228 male cancer risks, 228 testing for mutations, 227, 229, 231

Breast cancer (continued) BRCA2 Ashkenazim mutations, 230 discovery, 226-227, 229 epidemiology, 223-224 insurance availability and genetic testing, 231-233 prophylactic mastectomy, 223 Broderick, J., 65-66 Brunner, H., 84-86 Buckland, R., 68

Cabernet Sauvignon, origins, 169 Caldwell, G. S., 87 Cardozo, B., 72 Carrell, A., 200

Cat DNA, analysis in murder case,

53-57 CF. See Cystic fibrosis Chalmers, T., 72 Cheddar man ancestors, 45 carbon dating, 45 mitochondrial DNA, 45 Christiansen, K. O., 89 Chromosome number, establishment in humans, 79-80 Cleveland, Grover, 7 Cline, M., 252-253 Clinton, B., 285-286, 300 Cloning, animals applications, 294-295 cattle, 294-295

European regulations, 182-183 frogs, 290

genetic diversity of cloned animals, 296

goats, 181-182 horizontal cloning, 290-291 human cloning ethics abuse potential, 297 emotional impact on cloned child, 299

environmental influences on outcome, 297 primate hybrids, 297-298 public opinion, 295-296 human gene insertion in sheep, 294 pigs, 182

sheep, Dolly experience implications for human cloning, 289-290, 293

life expectancy, 292 reactions, 292-295 technical background, 289, 291-292

technical barriers to human cloning, 297

Cloninger, R., 125

Congenital erythropoietic porphyria, features, 20-21 Consanguinity. See also Toulouse-Lautrec allele sharing, 28

genetic risks and magnitude, 29-30 historical beliefs, 28-29 prevalence trends, 29-30 religious prohibitions, 28 Coote, N., 293

Criminal behavior. See also Monoamine oxidase A deficiency; XYY syndrome adoption studies, 89-90 familial clustering, 88 genetic factors and legal implications,

82-83, 86-87, 90-91 twin studies, 88-89 Culver, K., 253 Cystic fibrosis (CF) course, 213, 216 gene discovery, 214-215 mutations, 215-216 gene therapy, 216-217 genotype-phenotype correlation, 216 historical perspective, 213-214 incidence, 214 prenatal diagnosis, 220-221 screening for carriers commercial tests, 218 cost analysis, 219-220 ethical considerations, 217-218, 220-221 population-based screening, 218-219

Darwin, Charles, 118, 145-146

Davis v. Davis, frozen embryo custody,

277-281 Depo-Provera, sex offender treatment, 88 Depression. See Manic-depressive illness Devlin, R., 173

DNA felon database backlog of unprocessed samples, 69-70

behavioral genetics studies, 77 cold hits, 67 England, 70

ethics of universal database, 63,

76-77 Minnesota case, 65-68 recidivism of criminals and rationale, 69 standing in U. S. courts, 70-71 Dog breeding and behavior, 117-120 chromosome mapping, 118 genetic diseases, 119 genome comparison with humans, 119-120 Dolly. See Cloning, animals Dominant genes finger abnormality studies, 18 Mendel's studies, 16-17 royalty studies, 18-19 Dopamine D4 receptor, novelty-seeking role, 125 Down syndrome

Alzheimer disease association, 239 discovery of extra chromosome, 80 features, 141

genetic basis for retardation, 141-142 prenatal testing, 266 variants, 141

wrongful birth lawsuit, 97-98 Drinkwater, E., 18 Dugdale, R., 303 Duguay, S., 53

Embryos, frozen. See Frozen embryos

Ethanol, production by genetically modified organisms, 168-169 Eugenics

China, 308-310 egg donors, 313-314 federal immigration law, 305 Galton, Francis eugenics contributions, 134, 304 heredity and achievement studies, 133-134 historical perspective, 304-310

Nazi Germany, 307 negative eugenics and abortion,

310-312 positive eugenics, 312-315 selective abortion for gender, 308-309 sperm banks, 312-313 Virginia law concerning mental retardation and sterilization, 303-304, 306 Extinction cheetah breeding, 195 Florida panther preservation, 193-196 habitat preservation, 188 orangutan breeding programs,

191-193 rain forests, 188

rationale for saving animal species,

196-197 species distribution, 187-188 Spix's macaw, DNA test for sexing, 189-190

whooping crane rescue, 195-196

Farrabe, W. C., 17-18 Fetal research. See Frozen embryos Florida panther, preservation, 193-196 Forensics. See also DNA felon database exoneration of suspects with DNA

evidence, 71-74 polymerase chain reaction applications, 58-63 reopening of cases, 72, 75-76 rise of DNA evidence, 68-72 suspect's cat DNA analysis in murder case, 53-57 Fragile X syndrome case study, 93-95 features, 95-96 gene, 96 heredity, 96 history of study, 95 screening, 96, 101, 271-272 wrongful birth lawsuit, 95-97, 99-102 Freimer, N., 132 Frozen embryos advent of cryopreservation, 277-278 British law, 284, 286-287 Davis v. Davis case, 277-281 in vitro fertilization regulation,

279-280 Kass case, 281-282 numbers in storage, 283

Frozen embryos (continued) prospects for litigation, 282-283 research implications federal regulation, 285-286 Muller report, 285-286 twinning experiment, 286 Warnock Report, 285, 287 Rios case, 279

Roe v. Wade implications, 280-283 state regulation, 283 stem cell therapy, 300-301

Galton, Francis eugenics contributions, 134, 304 heredity and achievement studies, 133-134 Gay gene. See Homosexuality Gelsinger, J., 256-257 Gene therapy adenosine deaminase deficiency,

253-254 commercialization, 255-256 cystic fibrosis, 216-217 death of trial patient, 256-257 federal regulation, 251-252, 256 germ-line genetic therapy ethics,

249-251,258-259 hypercholesterolemia, 255-256 ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency,

256-257 prospects, 258 prostate cancer, 258 rationale, 249

severe combined immunodeficiency, 249

^-thalassemia, 252 types, 249-250 Genetically modified organism (GMO) Bacillus thuringiensis engineering for insecticide use, 159-162, 164-165 benefits of transgenic crops,

158-159 cloning, 160

concerns, 158-159, 162-165 European reaction, 162-164 examples of plants, 157-158, 160 fuel production, 168-169 gene transfer, 160-161 nutritional genomics, 170-171 pest-resistant corn, 159-160, 164-165

production of therapeutic proteins glucocerebrosidase, 166-167 hemoglobin for blood substitute, 167

vaccines, 167-168 regulatory approval, 162-163,

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