Insulin-deficient animals showed reduction or absence of amylin, whether insulin deficiency was invoked chemically with streptozotocin (Bretherton-Watt et al., 1989; Inman et al., 1990; Jamal et al., 1990; Mulder et al., 1995b, 1996c; Ogawa et al., 1990) or by autoimmune b-cell destruction, as with BB rats (Bretherton-Watt et al., 1991; Huang et al., 1991a,b). That is, loss of insulin secretion was associated with loss of amylin secretion. This indicates that any source of amylin that is outside of b-cells (for example, pancreatic d-cells or the gastric antrum) must contribute comparatively little to overall circulating concentrations, or else the disappearance of amylin and insulin following b-cell destruction would be dissimilar.
In human type 1 diabetes, pancreatic amylin content was low (Tasaka et al., 1995). Plasma amylin concentrations were described as low (e.g., 0.7 pM, Hartter et al., 1991; 1.6 pM, Manley and Hales, 1997) or undetectable (van Hulst et al., 1994), and nutrient-stimulated increments in plasma concentration were either low (Hanabusa et al., 1992) or unmeasurable (Koda et al., 1992). Absence of amylin secretion was similarly observed in children with type 1 diabetes (Akimoto et al., 1993) (Fig. 4).
FIGURE 4 Changes in plasma concentration of insulin and amylin secretion following a 75 g oral glucose load in five non-diabetic subjects, five subjects with type 1 diabetes, and six subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Symbols are means ± SEM. Data from Koda et al. (1992).
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All you need is a proper diet of fresh fruits and vegetables and get plenty of exercise and you'll be fine. Ever heard those words from your doctor? If that's all heshe recommends then you're missing out an important ingredient for health that he's not telling you. Fact is that you can adhere to the strictest diet, watch everything you eat and get the exercise of amarathon runner and still come down with diabetic complications. Diet, exercise and standard drug treatments simply aren't enough to help keep your diabetes under control.