1. Brook I, Yocum P, Friedman EM. Aerobic and anaerobic flora recovered from tonsils of children with recurrent tonsillitis. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1981; 90:261-3.

2. Brook I, Yocum P. Comparison of the microbiology of group A streptococcal and non-group A streptococcal tonsillitis. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1988; 97:243-6.

3. Brook I, Yocum P. Bacteriology of chronic tonsillitis in young adults. Arch Otolaryngol 1984; 110:803-5.

4. Brook I. Aerobic and anaerobic bacteriology of peritonsillar abscess in children. Acta Paediatr Scand 1981; 70:831-5.

5. Reilly S, Timmis P, Beeden AG, Willis AT. Possible role of the anaerobe in tonsillitis. J Clin Pathol 1981; 34:542-7.

6. Chagollan JJ, Ramirez MJ, Gil JS. Flora indigena de las amigdalas. Invest Med Int 1984; 11:36-44.

7. Rosen G, Samuel J, Vered I. Surface tonsillar microflora versus deep tonsillar microflora in recurrent tonsillitis. J Laryngol Otol 1977; 91:911-3.

8. Brodsky L, Nagy M, Volk M, Stanievich J, Moore L. The relationship of tonsil bacterial concentration to surface and core cultures in chronic tonsillar disease in children. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 1991; 21:33-9.

9. Brook I, Yocum P, Shah K. Surface vs. core-tonsillar aerobic and anaerobic flora in recurrent tonsillitis. JAMA 1980; 244:169-86.

10. Mitchelmore IJ, Reilly PG, Hay AJ, Tabaqchali S. Tonsil surface and core cultures in recurrent tonsillitis: prevalence of anaerobes and beta-lactamase producing organisms. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1994; 13:542-8.

11. Brook I, Gober AE. Interference by aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in children with recurrent group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal tonsillitis. Arch Otolaryngal Head Neck Surg 1999; 125: 225-554.

12. Brook I, Yocum P, Foote PA. Changes in the core tonsillitis bacteriology of recurrent tonsillitis: 1977-1993. Clin Infect Dis 1995; 21:171-6.

13. Tuner K, Nord CE. Beta-lactamase-producing microorganisms in recurrent tonsillitis. Scand J Infect Dis 1983; 39(Suppl.):83-5.

14. Kielmovitech IH, Keltel G, Bluestone C, et al. Microbiology of obstructive tonsillar hypertrophy and recurrent tonsillitis. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1989; 115:721-5.

15. Brook I, Foote PA. Comparison of the microbiology of recurrent tonsillitis between children and adults. Laryngoscope 1986; 93:1385-8.

16. Kuhn JJ, Brook I, Waters CL, Church LW, Bianchi DA, Thompson DH. Quantitative bacteriology of tonsils removed from children with tonsillitis hypertrophy and recurrent tonsillitis with and without hypertrophy. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1995; 104:646-52.

17. Sclafani AP, Ginsburg J, Shah MK, Dolisky JN. Treatment of symptomatic chronic adenotonsillar hypertrophy with amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium: short- and long-term results. Pediatrics 1998; 101:675-81.

18. Brook I. Anaerobic bacteria in upper respiratory tract and other head and neck infections. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2002; 111:430-40.

19. Pransky SM, Feldman JI, Kearns DB, Seid AB, Billman GF. Actinomycosis in abstructive tonsillar hypertrophy and recurrent tonsillitis. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1991; 117:883-5.

20. Socransky SS, Manganiello SD. The oral microbiota of man from birth to senility. J Periodontol 1971; 42:485-96.

21. Brook I. Anaerobic infections in children. Microbes Infect 2002; 4:1271-80.

22. Brook I, Foote PA, Jr. Microbiology of "normal" tonsils. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1990; 99:980-3.

23. Brook I. Microbiology of retropharyngeal abscesses in children. Am J Dis Child 1987; 141:202-3.

24. Folayan MO. The epidemiology, etiology, and pathophysiology of acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis associated with malnutrition. J Contemp Dent Pract 2004; 5:28-41.

25. Brook I, Gober AE. Bacteroides melaninogenicus: its recovery from tonsils of children with acute tonsillitis. Arch Otolaryngol 1984; 109:818-21.

26. Davidson S, Kaplinsky C, Frand M, Rotem J. Treatment of infectious mononucleosis with metronidazole in the pediatric age group. Scand J Infect Dis 1982; 14:103-4.

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29. Merenstein JH, Rogers KD. Streptococcal pharyngitis: early treatment and management by nurse practitioners. JAMA 1974; 227:1278-82.

30. Putto A. Febrile exudative tonsillitis: viral or streptococcal. Pediatrics 1987; 80:6-12.

31. Brook I. Medical treatment of non-streptococcal recurrent tonsillitis. Am J Otolaryngol 1989; 10:227-33.

32. Brook I, Gillmore JD, Coolbaugh JC, Walker RI. Pathogenicity of encapsulated Bacteroides melaninogenicus group, Bacteroides oralis, and Bacteroides ruminicola in abscesses in mice. J Infect 1983; 7:218-26.

33. Brook I, Foote PA, Jr., Slots J, Jackson W. Immune response to Prevotella intermedia in patients with recurrent non-streptococcal tonsillitis. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1993; 102:113-6.

34. Brook I, Foote PA, Slots J. Immune response to Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia and other anaerobes in children with acute tonsillitis. J Antimicrob Chemother 1997; 39:763-9.

35. Brook I, Foote PA, Slots J. Immune response to Fusobacterium nucleatum and Prevotella intermedia in patients with peritonsillar cellulitis and abscess. Clin Infect Dis 1995; 20:S220-1.

36. Brook I, de Leyva F. Immune response to Fusobacterium nucleatum and Prevotella intermedia in patients with infectious mononucleosis. J Med Microbiol 1996; 44:131-4.

37. Brook I, de Leyva F. Microbiology of tonsillar surfaces in infectious mononucleosis. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1994; 148:171-3.

38. Brook I, Gober AE. Treatment of non-streptococcal tonsillitis with metronidazole. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2005; 69:65-8.

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40. Pichichero ME, Green JL, Francis AB, et al. Recurrent group A streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1998; 17:809-15.

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42. Brook I, Yocum P. Quantitative measurement of beta-lactamase levels in tonsils of children with recurrent tonsillitis. Acta Otolaryngol 1984; 98:556-60.

43. Brook I, Yocum P. In vitro protection of group A beta-hemolytic streptococci from penicillin and cephalothin by Bacteroides fragilis. Chemotherapy 1983; 29:18-23.

44. Simon HJ, Sakai W. Staphylococcal antagonism to penicillin group therapy of hemolytic streptococcal pharyngeal infection effect of oxacillin. Pediatrics 1963; 31:463-9.

45. Scheifele DW, Fussell SJ. Frequency of ampicillin resistant Haemophilus parainfluenzae in children. J Infect Dis 1981; 143:495-8.

46. Hackman AS, Wilkins TD. In vivo protection of Fusobacterium necrophorum from penicillin by Bacteroides fragilis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1975; 7:698-703.

47. Hackman AS, Wilkins TD. Influence of penicillinase production by strains of Bacteroides melanino-genicus and Bacteroides oralis on penicillin therapy of an experimental mixed anaerobic infection in mice. Arch Oral Biol 1976; 21:385-9.

48. Brook I, Pazzaglia G, Coolbaugh JC, Walker RI. In vivo protection of group A beta hemolytic streptococci from penicillin by beta lactamase producing bacteroides species. J Antimicrob Chemother 1983; 12:599-606.

49. Brook I, Gober AE. Emergence of beta lactamase-producing aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in the oropharynx of children following penicillin chemotherapy. Clin Pediatr 1984; 23:338-41.

50. Tuner K, Nord CE. Emergence of beta-lactamase producing anaerobic bacteria in the tonsils during penicillin treatment. Eur J Clin Microb 1986; 5:399-404.

51. Brook I. Emergence and persistence of beta-lactamase-producing bacteria in the oropharynx following penicillin treatment. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1988; 114:667-70.

52. Brook I. Role of beta lactamase-producing bacteria in penicillin failure to eradicate group A streptococci. Pediatric Infect Dis 1985; 4:491-5.

53. Roos K, Grahn E, Holm SE. Evaluation of beta lactamase activity and microbial interference in treatment failures of acute streptococcal tonsillitis. Scand J Infect Dis 1986; 18:313-9.

54. Breese BB, Disney FA, Talpey WB. Beta-hemolytic streptococcal illness: comparison of lincomycin, ampicillin, and potassium penicillin in treatment. Am J Dis Child 1966; 112:21-7.

55. Orrling A, Stjernquist-Desatnik A, Schalen C, Kamme C. Clindamycin in persisting streptococcal pharyngotonsillitis after penicillin treatment. Scand J Infect Dis 1994; 26:535-41.

56. Breese BB, Disney FA, Talpey WB, Green J. Beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection: comparison of penicillin and lincomycin in the treatment of recurrent infections of the carrier state. Am J Dis Child 1969; 117:147-52.

57. Massell BF. Prophylaxis of streptococcal infection and rheumatic fever: a comparison of orally administered clindamycin and penicillin. JAMA 1979; 241:1589-94.

58. Randolph MF, DeHaan RM. A comparison of lincomycin and pencillin in the treatment of group A streptococcal infection. Del Med J 1969; 41:51-62.

59. Randolph MF, Redys JJ, Hibbard EW. Streptococcal pharyngitis: III. Streptococcal recurrence rates following therapy with penicillin or with clindamycin (7-chlorolincomycin). Del Med J 1970; 42:87-92.

60. Brook I, Hirokawa R. Treatment of patients with a history of recurret tonsillitis due to group A beta-hemolytic streptococci. Clin Pediatr 1985; 24:331-6.

61. Howie VM, Plousard JH. Treatment of group A streptococcal pharyngitis in children: comparison of lincomycin and penicillin G given orally and benzathine penicillin G given intramuscularly. Am J Dis Child 1971; 121:477-80.

62. Stillerman M, Isenberg HD, Facklam RR. Streptococcal pharyngitis therapy: comparison of clindamycin palmitate and potassium phenoxymethyl penicillin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1973; 4:514-20.

63. Brook I. Treatment of patients with acute recurrent tonsillitis due to group A beta-haemolytic streptococci: a prospective randomized study comparing penicillin and amoxycillin/clavulanate potassium. J Antimicrob Chemother 1989; 24:227-33.

64. Tanz RR, Shulman ST, Barthel MJ, Willert C, Yogev R. Penicillin plus rifampin eradicate pharyngeal carrier of group A streptococci. J Pediatr 1985; 106:876-80.

65. Chaudhary S, Bilinsky SA, Hennessy JL, et al. Penicillin Vand rifampin for the treatment of group A streptococcal pharyngitis: a randomized trial of 10 days penicillin vs. 10 days penicillin with rifampin during the final 4 days of therapy. J Pediatr 1985; 106:481-6.

66. Tanz RR, Poncher JR, Corydon KE, Kabat K, Yogev R, Shulman ST. Clindamycin treatment of chronic pharyngeal carriage of group A streptococci. J Pediatr 1991; 119:123-8.

67. Brook I, Leyva F. The treatment of the carrier state of group A beta hemolytic streptococci with clindamycin. Chemotherapy 1981; 27:360-7.

68. Brook I. The presence of beta-lactamase-producing bacteria as a guideline in the management of children with recurrent tonsillitis. Am J Otolaryngol 1984; 5:382-6.

69. Foote PA, Jr., Brook I. Penicillin and clindamycin therapy in recurrent tonsillitis. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1989; 116:856-9.

70. Tanz RR, Shulman ST, Sroka PA, Marubio S, Brook I, Yogev R. Lack of influence of beta-lactamase-producing flora on recovery of group A streptococci after treatment of acute pharyngitis. J Pediatr 1990; 117:859-63.

71. Dykhuizen RS, Golder D, Reid TM, Gould IM. Phenoxymethyl penicillin versus co-amoxiclav in the treatment of acute streptococcal pharyngitis, and the role of beta-lactamase activity in saliva. J Antimicrob Chemother 1996; 37:133-8.

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81. Goldhagen J, Alford BA, Prewitt LH, Thompson L, Hostetter MK. Suppurative thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein: report of three cases and review of the pediatric literature. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1988; 7:410-4.

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85. Veltri RW, Sprinkle PM, Keller SA, Chicklo JM. Ecological alterations of oral microflora subsequent to tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy. J Laryngol Otol 1972; 86:893-903.

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