1. Shupak A, Halpern P, Ziser A, Melamed Y. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for gas gangrene casualties in Lebanon War, 1982. Isr J Med Sci 1984; 20:323-6.

2. Altemeier WA, Fullen WD. Prevention and treatment of gas gangrene. JAMA 1971; 217:806-13.

3. Fredette V. Effects of hyperbaric oxygen on anaerobic bacteria and toxins. Ann NY Acad Sci 1965; 117:700-5.

4. Kindwall EP. Use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the 1990s. Cleve Clin J Med 1992; 59:517-28.

5. Nakajima H, Iwai Y, Yamanaka K, Kishi H. Successful treatment of brainstem abscess with stereotactic aspiration. Surg Neurol 1999; 52:445-8.

6. Pruitt AA. Infections of the nervous system. Neurol Clin 1998; 16:419-47.

7. Brook I, Walker RI. Significance of encapsulated Bacteroides melaninogenicus and Bacteroides fragilis groups in mixed infections. Infect Immun 1984; 44:12-4.

8. Cinat ME, Wilson SE. New advances in the use of antimicrobial agents in surgery: intra-abdominal infections. J Chemother 1999; 11:453-63.

9. Finegold SM, George WL, Mulligan ME. Anaerobic Infections. Disease a Month., Vol. 31. Chicago, IL: Yearbook Medical Publisher, Inc., 1985:11-7.

10. Verklin RM, Mandell GL. Alteration of antibiotics by anaerobiosis. J Lab Clin Med 1977; 89:65-71.

11. Gorbach SL, Bartlett JG. Anaerobic infections. N Engl J Med 1974; 290:1177-84.

12. Aldridge KE, Sanders CV. Susceptibility trending of blood isolates of the Bacteroides fragilis group over a 12-year period to clindamycin, ampicillin-sulbactam, cefoxitin, imipenem, and metronidazole. Anaerobe 2002; 8:301-5.

13. Sutter VL, Finegold SM. Susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria to 23 antimicrobial agents. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1976; 10:736-52.

14. Brook I, Gober AE. Emergence of beta-lactamase-producing aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in the oropharynx of children following penicillin chemotherapy. Clin Pediatr 1984; 23:338-42.

15. Tuner K, Nord CE. Emergence of beta-lactamase-producing microorganisms in the tonsils during penicillin treatment. Eur J Clin Microb 1986; 5:399-404.

16. Snydman DR, Jacobus NV, McDermott LA, et al. National survey on the susceptibility of Bacteroides fragilis group: report and analysis of trends for 1997-2000. Clin Infect Dis 2002; 35(Suppl. 1):S126-34.

17. Labbe AC, Bourgault AM, Vincelette J, Turgeon PL, Lamothe F. Trends in antimicrobial resistance among clinical isolates of the Bacteroides fragilis group from 1992 to 1997 in Montreal, Canada. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1999; 43:2517-9.

18. Bianchini H, Fernandez Canigia LB, Bantar C, Smayevsky J. Trends in antimicrobial resistance of the Bacteroides fragilis group: a 20-year study at a medical center in Buenaos Aires, Argentina. Clin Infect Dis 1997; 25:S268-9.

19. Garcia-Rodrigues JE, Garcia-Sanchez JE. Evolution of antimicrobial susceptibility in isolates of the Bacteroides fragilis group in Spain. Clin Infect Dis 1990; 12:S142-51.

20. Lee K, Chuong Y, Jeong SH, Xu X-S, Kwon OH. Emerging resistance of anaerobic bacteria to antimicrobial agents in South Korea. Clin Infect Dis 1996; 23:S73-7.

21. Finegold SM. Anaerobic Bacteria in Human Disease. New York: Academic Press, 1977.

22. Busch DF, Kureshi LA, Sutter VL, Finegold SM. Susceptibility of respiratory tract anaerobes to orally administered penicillins and cephalosporins. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1976; 10:713-20.

23. Finegold SM. In vitro efficacy of beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations against bacteria involved in mixed infections. Int J Antimicrob Agents 1999; 12(Suppl. 1):S9-14.

24. Acuna C, Rabasseda X. Amoxicillin-sulbactam: a clinical and therapeutic review. Drugs Today (Barc) 2001; 37:193-210.

25. Sutter VL, Finegold SM. Susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria to carbenicillin, cefoxitin, and related drugs. J Infect Dis 1975; 131:417-22.

26. Fiedelman W, Webb CD. Clinical evaluation of carbenicillin in the treatment of infection due to anaerobic bacteria. Curr Ther Res 1975; 18:441-51.

27. Thadepalli H, Huang JT. Treatment of anaerobic infections: carbenicillin alone compared with clindamycin and gentamicin. Curr Ther Res 1977; 22:549-57.

28. Brook I. Carbenicillin in treatment of aspiration pneumonia in children. Curr Ther Res 1978; 23:136-47.

29. Brook I. Anaerobic isolates in chronic recurrent suppurative otitis media: treatment with carbeni-cillin alone and in combination with gentamicin. Infection 1979; 5:247-51.

30. Tally FP, Jacobus NV, Bartlett JG, Gorbach SL. In vitro activity of penicillins against anaerobes. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1975; 7:413-4.

31. Roy I, Bach V, Thadepalli H. In vitro activity of ticarcillin against anaerobic bacteria compared with that of carbenicillin and penicillin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1977; 11:258-61.

32. Goldstein EJ, Citron DM, Vaidya SA, et al. In vitro activity of 11 antibiotics against 74 anaerobes isolated from pediatric intra-abdominal infections. Anaerobe 2006; 12:63-6.

33. Jousimies H, Summanen P. Recent taxonomic changes and terminology update of clinically significant anaerobic gram-negative bacteria (excluding spirochetes). Clin Infect Dis 2002; 35(Suppl. 1):S17-21.

34. Jousimies-Somer HR, Summanen P, Baron EJ, Citron DM, Wexler HM, Finegold SM. Wadsworth-KTL Anaerobic Bacteriology Manual. 6th ed. Belmont, CA: Star Publishing, 2002.

35. Brook I. Intra-abdominal, retroperitoneal, and visceral abscesses in children. Eur J Pediatr Surg 2004; 14:265-73.

36. Goldstein EJ. Intra-abdominal anaerobic infections: bacteriology and therapeutic potential of newer antimicrobial carbapenem, fluoroquinolone, and desfluoroquinolone therapeutic agents. Clin Infect Dis 2002; 35(Suppl. 1):S106-11.

37. Sutter VL, Citron DM, Edelstein MAC, Finegold SM. Anaerobic Bacteriology Manual. 4th ed. Belmont, CA: Star Publishing Company, 1985.

38. Brook I. Bacterial studies of peritoneal cavity and postoperative surgical wound drainage following perforated appendix in children. Ann Surg 1980; 192:208.

39. Hedberg M, Nord CE. ESCMID Study Group on antimicrobial resistance in anaerobic bacteria. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Bacteroides fragilis group isolates in Europe. Clin Microbiol Infect 2003; 9:475-88.

40. Snydman DR, Jacobus NV, McDermott LA, et al. Multicenter study of in vitro susceptibility of the Bacteroides fragilis group, 1995 to 1996, with comparison of resistance trends from 1990 to 1996. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1999; 43:2417-22.

41. Rodloff AC, Goldstein EJ, Torres A. Two decades of imipenem therapy. J Antimicrob Chemother 2006; 58:916-29.

42. Hellinger WC, Brewer NS. Carbapenems and monobactams: imipenem, meropenem, and aztreonam. Mayo Clin Proc 1999; 74:420-34.

43. Edwards JR. Meropenem: a microbiological overview. J Antimicrob Chemother 1995; 36:1-17.

44. Jorgensen JH, Maher LA, Howell AW. Activity of meropenem against antibiotic-resistant or infrequently encountered gram-negative bacilli. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1991; 35:2410-4.

45. Abramowicz M. Meropenem—a new parenteral broad-spectrum antibiotic. Med Lett 1996; 38:88-90.

46. Keating GM, Perry CM. Ertapenem: a review of its use in the treatment of bacterial infections. Drugs 2005; 65:2151-78.

47. Kasten MJ. Clindamycin, metronidazole, and chloramphenicol. Mayo Clin Proc 1999; 74:825-33 (Review).

48. Thadepalli H, Gorbach SL, Bartlett JG. Apparent failure of chloramphenicol in anaerobic infections. Obstet Gynecol Surg 1978; 35:334-5.

49. Balbi HJ. Chloramphenicol: a review. Pediatr Rev 2004; 25:284-8.

50. Nau R, Sorgel F, Prange HW. Pharmacokinetic optimisation of the treatment of bacterial central nervous system infections. Clin Pharmacokinet 1998; 35:223-46.

51. Drutz DJ, Schaffner W, Hillman JW, Koenig MG. The penetration of penicillin and other antimicrobials into joint fluid. J Bone Joint Surg 1967; 49:1415-21.

52. Joiner KA, Lowe BR, Dzink JL, Bartlett JG. Antibiotic levels in infected and sterile subcutaneous abscesses in mice. J Infect Dis 1981; 143:487-94.

53. Goldstein EJ, Citron DM, Merriam CV. Linezolid activity compared to those of selected macrolides and other agents against aerobic and anaerobic pathogens isolated from soft tissue bite infections in humans. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1999; 43:1469-74.

54. Williams JD, Maskell JP, Shain H, et al. Comparative in-vitro activity of azithromycin, macrolides (erythromycin, clarithromycin and spiramycin) and streptogramin RP 59500 against oral organisms. J Antimicrob Chemother 1992; 30:27-37.

55. Werner H, Boehm M, Kunstek-Santos H, Lohner C, Jordan T. Susceptibility to erythromycin of anaerobes of the genera Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Sphaerophorus, Veillonella, Clostridium, Corynebac-terium, Peptococcus, Peptostreptococcus. Arzneimittelforschung 1977; 27:2263-5.

56. Finegold SM, Harada NE, Miller LG. Lincomycin activity against anaerobes and effect on normal human fecal flora. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1965; 5:659-67.

57. Klainer AS. Clindamycin. Med Clin North Am 1987; 71:1169-75.

58. LeFrock JL, Molavi A, Prince RA. Clindamycin. Med Clin North Am 1982; 66:103-20.

59. Paap CM, Nahata MC. Clinical pharmacokinetics of antibacterial drugs in neonates. Clin Pharmacokinet 1990; 19:280-318.

60. Feigin RD, Pickering LK, Anderson D, Keeney RE, Shackleford PG. Clindamycin treatment of osteomyelitis and septic arthritis in children. Pediatrics 1975; 55:213-23.

61. Novak E, Wagner JG, Lamb DJ. Local and systemic tolerance, absorption and excretion of clindamycin hydrochloride after intramuscular administration. Int Z Klin Pharmakol Ther Toxikol 1970; 3:201-8.

62. Panzer JD, Brown DC, Epstein WL, Lipson RL, Mahaffey HW, Atkinson WH. Clindamycin levels in various body tissues and fluids. J Clin Pharmacol 1972; 12:259-62.

63. Gorbach SL, Thadepalli H. Clindamycin in the treatment of pure and mixed anaerobic infections. Arch Intern Med 1974; 134:87-92.

64. Gorbach SL. Antibiotics and Clostridium difficile. N Engl J Med 1999; 341:1690-1.

65. Mylonakis E, Ryan ET, Calderwood SB. Clostridium difficile—associated diarrhea: a review. Arch Intern Med 2001; 161:525-33.

66. Devenyi AG. Antibiotic-induced colitis. Semin Pediatr Surg 1995; 4:215-20.

67. Berlatzky Y, Rubin SZ, Michel J, Sacks T, Schiller M. Use of clindamycin and gentamicin in pediatric colonic surgery. J Pediatr Surg 1976; 11:943-8.

68. Brook I. Clindamycin in treatment of aspiration pneumonia in children. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1979; 15:342-4.

69. Brook I. Bacteriology and treatment of chronic otitis media in children. Laryngoscope 1979; 89:1129-34.

70. Brook I, Yocum P. Antimicrobial management of chronic sinusitis in children. J Laryngol Otol 1995; 109:1159-62.

71. Brook I, Lewis MA, Sandor GK, Jeffcoat M, Samaranayake LP, Vera Rojas J. Clindamycin in dentistry: more than just effective prophylaxis for endocarditis? Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2005; 100:550-8.

72. Chow AW, Patten V, Guze LB. Susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria to metronidazole: relative resistance of non-spore forming gram-positive bacilli. J Infect Dis 1975; 131:182-5.

73. Freeman CD, Klutman NE, Lamp KC. Metronidazole. A therapeutic review and update. Drugs 1997; 54:679-708.

74. Rustia M, Shubik P. Experimental induction of hematomas, mammary tumors and other tumors with metronidazole in noninbred Sas: WRC (WT)BR rats. J Natl Cancer Inst 1979; 63:863-8.

75. Cohen SM, Erturk E, Von Esch AM, Crovetti AJ, Bryan GT. Carcinogenicity of 5-nitro-furans 5-nitromidazoles, 4-nitrobenzenes and related compounds. J Natl Cancer Inst 1973; 51:403.

76. Beard CM, Noller KL, O'Fallon WM, Kurland LT, Dockerty MB. Lack of evidence for cancer due to use of metronidazole. N Engl J Med 1979; 301:519-22.

77. Tally FP, Gorbach SL. Therapy of mixed anaerobic-aerobic infections. Lessons from studies of intraabdominal sepsis. Am J Med 1985; 78:145-53.

78. Berman BW, King FH, Jr., Rubenstein DS, Long SS. Bacteroides fragilis meningitis in a neonatal successfully treated with metronidazole. J Pediatr 1979; 93:793-5.

79. Rom S, Flynn D, Noone P. Anaerobic infections in a neonate. Early detection by gas liquid chromatography and response to metronidazole. Arch Dis Child 1977; 52:740-1.

80. Brook I. Microbiology and management of brain abscess in children. J Pediatr Neurol 2004; 2:125-30.

81. Law BJ, Marks MI. Excellent outcome of Bacteroides meningitis in a newborn treated with metronidazole. Pediatrics 1980; 66:463-5.

82. Brook I. Treatment of anaerobic infections in children with metronidazole. Dev Pharmacol 1983; 6:187-98.

83. Townsend ML, Pound MW, Drew RH. Tigecycline: a new glycylcycline antimicrobial. Int J Clin Pract 2006; 60:1662-7.

84. Goldstein EJ, Citron DM, Merriam CV, Warren YA, Tyrrell KL, Fernandez HT. Comparative in vitro susceptibilities of 396 unusual anaerobic strains to tigecycline and eight other antimicrobial agents. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2006; 50:3507-13.

85. Appelbaum PC. Quinolone activity against anaerobes. Drugs 1999; 58:60-4.

86. Goldstein EJ. Possible role for the new fluoroquinolones (levofloxacin, grepafloxacin, trovafloxacin, clinafloxacin, sparfloxacin, and DU-6859a) in the treatment of anaerobic infections: review of current information on efficacy and safety. Clin Infect Dis 1996; 23:S25-30.

87. Finch RG. Antibacterial activity of quinupristin/dalfopristin. Rationale for clinical use. Drugs 1996; 51:31-7.

88. Brook I. Pathogenicity and management of polymicrobial infections due to aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Med Res Rev 1995; 15:73-82.

89. Bartlett JG. Recent developments in the management of anaerobic infection. Rev Infect Dis 1983; 5:235-45.

90. Holzheimer RG, Dralle H. Antibiotic therapy in intra-abdominal infections—a review on randomised clinical trials. Eur J Med Res 2001; 6:277-91.

91. Rodloff AC, Goldstein EJ, Torres A. Two decades of imipenem therapy. J Antimicrob Chemother 2006; 58:916-29.

92. Sanabria A. Decision-making analysis for selection of antibiotic treatment in intra-abdominal infection using preference measurements. Surg Infect (Larchmt) 2006; 7:453-62.

93. Laterre PF, Colardyn F, Delmee M, et al. Antimicrobial therapy for intra-abdominal infections: guidelines from the Infectious Disease Advisory Board (IDAB). Acta Chir Belg 2006; 106:2-21.

94. Marshall JC. Intra-abdominal infections. Microbes Infect 2004; 6:1015-25.

95. Giamarellou H, Kanellakopoulou K. Bacteriologic and therapeutic considerations in intra-abdomi-nal surgical infections. Anaerobe 1997; 3:207-12.

96. Verwaest C, Belgian Multicenter Study Group. Meropenem versus imipenem/cilastatin as empirical monotherapy for serious bacterial infections in the intensive care unit. Clin Microbiol Infect 2000; 6:294-302.

97. Burkhardt O, Derendorf H, Welte T. Ertapenem: the new carbapenem 5 years after first FDA licensing for clinical practice. Expert Opin Pharmacother 2007; 8:237-56.

98. Powell LL, Wilson SE. The role of beta-lactam antimicrobials as single agents in treatment of intraabdominal infection. Surg Infect (Larchmt) 2000; 1:57-63.

99. Munckhof WJ, Carney J, Neilson G, et al. Continuous infusion of ticarcillin-clavulanate for home treatment of serious infections: clinical efficacy, safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2005; 25:514-22.

100. Brook I, Coolbaugh JC, Walker RI, Weiss E. Synergism between penicillin, clindamycin or metronidazole and gentamicin against species of Bacteroides melaninogenicus and fragilis groups. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1984; 25:71-7.

101. Acar JF. Antibiotic synergy and antagonism. Med Clin North Am 2000; 84:1391-406.

102. Snydman DR, Jacobus NV, McDermott LA, et al. National survey on the susceptibility of B. fragilis group: report and analysis of trends for 1997-2004: a U.S. survey. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2007; 51:1649-55.

103. Brook I. Synergistic combinations of antimicrobial agents against anaerobic bacteria. Pediatr Infect Dis 1987; 6:332.

104. Bergan T, Fotland MH. In vitro interactions between metronidazole or tinidazole and co-trimoxazole on the effect against anaerobic bacteria. Scand J Gastroenterol 1984; 19:95.

105. Ralph ED, Amatnieks YE. Potentially synergistic antimicrobial combinations with metronidazole against Bacteroides fragilis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1980; 17:379.

106. Busch DF, Sutter VL, Finegold SM. Activity of combinations of antimicrobial agents against Bacteroides fragilis. J Infect Dis 1976; 133:321-8.

107. Brook I. Metronidazole and spiramycin in abscesses caused by Bacteroides sp. Staphylococcus aureus in mice. J Antimicrob Chemother 1987; 20:713-8.

108. Videau D, Blanchard JC, Sebald M. Bucco-dental flora. Sensitivity to antibiotics and value of the spiramycin-metronidazole combination. Ann Microbiol 1973; 1248:505-16.

109. Ednie Lm, Credito KL, Khantipong M, Jacobs MR, Appelbaum PC. Synergic activity, for anaerobes, of trovafloxacin with clindamycin or metronidazole: chequerboard and time-kill methods. J Antimicrob Chemother 2000; 45:633-8.

110. Credito KL, Jacobs MR, Appelbaum PC. Anti-anaerobic activity of levofloxacin alone and combined with clindamycin and metronidazole. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2000; 38:181-3.

111. Fass RJ, Rotilie CA, Prior RB. Interaction of clindamycin and gentamicin in vitro. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1974; 6:582-7.

112. Okubadejo OA, Allen J. Combined activity of clindamycin and gentamicin on Bacteroides fragilis and other bacteria. J Antimicrob Chemother 1975; 1:403-9.

113. Brook I, Walker RI. Interaction between penicillin, clindamycin or metronidazole and gentamicin against species of clostridia and anaerobic and facultative anaerobic gram-positive cocci. J Antimicrob Chemother 1985; 15:31-7.

114. Thadepalli H, White DW, Bach VT. Antimicrobial activity and synergism of cefuroxime on anaerobic bacteria. Chemotherapy 1981; 27:252-8.

115. Trestman I, Kaye D, Levinson ME. Activity of semisynthetic penicillins and synergism with mecillinam against Bacteroides species. Agents Chemother 1979; 16:283-6.

116. Bryan LE, Kowand SK, Den Elzen HM. Mechanisms of aminoglycoside antibiotic resistance in anaerobic bacteria: Clostridium perfringens and Bacteroides fragilis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1979; 15:7-13.

Was this article helpful?

0 0
The Natural Acne Remedy

The Natural Acne Remedy

Download this Guide and Discover 50 Ways To Treat Acne Using Only Natural Remedies. About Time You Got Rid of Your Acne? Inside this guide, you'll discover: 50 ways to treat acne using natural remedies. The benefits of treating acne using natural remedies. Natural acne remedies to treat acne scarring. The side effects of popular acne medicines and treatments plus much, much more.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment