Studies in Children

Anaerobes were recovered in three studies, the only one that employed methods for their isolation (7,31,32). Brook (7) studied 40 children with chronic sinusitis. The sinuses infected were the maxillary (15 cases), ethmoid (13), and frontal (7). Pansinusitis was present in five patients. A total of 121 isolates (97 anaerobic and 24 aerobic) were recovered. Anaerobes were recovered from all 37 culture-positive specimens, and in 14 cases (38%) they were mixed with aerobes. The predominant anaerobes were AGNB (35), gram-positive cocci (27), and Fusobac-terium spp. (13). The predominant aerobes were alpha-hemolytic streptococci (7), S. aureus (7), and Haemophilus spp. (4).

Brook et al. (31) correlated the microbiology of concurrent chronic otitis media with effusion and chronic maxillary sinusitis in 32 children. Two-third of the patients had a bacterial etiology. The most common isolates were H. influenzae (9 isolates), S. pneumoniae (7), Prevotella spp. (8), and Peptostreptococcus spp. (6). Microbiological concordance between the ear and sinus was found in 22 (69%) of culture-positive patients.

Erkan et al. (32) studied 93 chronically inflamed maxillary sinuses in children. Anaerobes were isolated in 81 of 87 (93%) culture-positive specimens and were recovered alone in 61 cases (70%) and mixed with aerobic or faculative bacteria in 20 (23%). The predominant anaerobic organisms were Bacteroides spp. and anaerobic cocci; the predominant aerobes or facultatives were Streptococcus spp. and S. aureus.

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