Family Philometridae

The philometrids are common and exclusively parasites of fish. They occupy the same niche in fish as the filarioids do in terrestrial vertebrates and, like the filarioids, they have diversified extensively in their hosts. The gravid female is generally well known because it is large, packed with larvae and frequently occurs in readily observed parts of the host's body and even, at certain times of the year, protrudes from the anus. In the more primitive species, the gravid female occurs under...

Family Anguillicolidae

The family includes Molnaria and Skrjabillanus (syn. Agrachanus) of teleost fishes and Anguillicola of eels. Molnaria intestinalis (syn. M. erythrophthalmi) and Skrjabillanus scardinii occur on the serosa of the swimbladder, kidneys and intestine as well as on the mesentery of Scardinus erythrophthalmus in the CIS. According to Tikhomirova (1971, 1975, 1980) first-stage larvae of both species were carried in blood to the skin, where small accumulations could be found. The larva is short and has...

Family Daniconematidae

The family includes a single genus and species, found under the serosa of the swimbladder and intestine of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla). These fine thread-like nematodes with dome-shaped dorsoventral cephalic papillae occur in the serosa of the swimbladder and the intestine of Anguilla anguilla in Europe. It is suggested by Moravec (1994) that the first-stage larvae are found in the blood and the intermediate host may be blood-sucking branchiurids (Argulus). Larvae regarded as...

The Superfamily Camallanoidea

Camallanoids are parasites of the stomach and intestines of lower predaceous vertebrates Chabaud, 1975 . The superfamily consists of eight clearly related genera. Of the some 150 species described throughout the world, about 40 occur in amphibians and reptiles especially turtles Baker 1987 , the remainder in marine, estuarine and freshwater fishes Ivashkin et al., 1971 . The transmission and development of the former group have been little studied but a number of species in fish have been...

D insignis Leidy 1858

The biology of this species has been studied by Crichton and Beverley-Burton 1974, 1975, 1977 . It is a common parasite of raccoons Procyon lotor in Ontario, Canada. It is an annual species and gravid females emerged in legs in spring and early summer April to June . First-stage larvae were 596-857 mm in length. Larvae infected Cyclops bicuspidatus thomasi and C. vernalis. At 24 C the first moult occurred 8-9 days and the second 13-16 days postinfection. Third-stage larvae were 595-703 mm in...

Family Camallanidae

Camallanus

This species is common in various fishes in India, including the type host Anabas testudineus from freshwater swamps Soota, 1984 De, 1993 . Invasion of fish occurs in spring and summer and they grow in the fish during the monsoon and autumn. The proportion of males in the worm population increases in the early autumnal period and then decreases rapidly after they have fertilized the females. Larvae are released from females in late winter and early spring. Campana-Rouget et al. 1976 reported...

P cyprini Ishii 1931

Anguillicola Crassus Life Cycle

Vasilkov 1968 and Vismanis 1970 studied this species syn. P. lusiana in the carp Cyprinus carpio in the CIS. It is an annual species which developed in Acanthocyclops vernalis, A. viridis, Cyclops strenuus, Eucyclops serrulatus, E. macruroides, Macrocyclops albidus and Mesocyclops leuckarti. Carp acquired infections in June in Europe. Larvae ingested by carp congregated near the swimbladder, gonads and kidneys and developed to adulthood. In one month females were fertilized and then migrated to...

Family Dracunculidae

The family consists of a small number of recognized species in two genera Dracunculus occurs in mammals and reptiles snakes and turtles and Avioserpens in aquatic birds. In contrast to the philometrids of fishes, males are relatively large and easily observed. The fully developed adults of both sexes generally occur under the skin of the host. First-stage larvae, which are extremely numerous in the gravid female, are released into the water through a skin lesion, initially in the form of a...

Order Spirurida Suborder Camallanina

Females of most Spirurida produce eggs containing fully developed first-stage larvae larvae are considerably specialized in the Filarioidea which only develop to the third and infective stage in the tissues of arthropod intermediate hosts. Members of the Gnathostomatoidea are the exception since eggs, deposited in an undeveloped state, embryonate to second-stage larvae and hatch in water. Transmission in aquatic habitats depends upon crustaceans and larval insects as intermediate hosts....