ARM a Historical Overview

Jay L. Grosfeld



The Early Era: AD 2-1900 . . .3


Anorectal Anomalies in the Twentieth

Century . . .5


The Barren Era: 1900-1945 . . .5


Post World War II Era: 1945-1980 . . .5

A Time of Enlightenment

and Continued Controversy . . . 5


The Modern Era: 1980-2005 . . . 7


ARM in the Twenty-First Century . . . 10

References . . . 10

Anorectal malformations (ARM) are relatively frequently encountered anomalies that represent an important component of pediatric surgical practice. Many in our profession have a significant interest in the management of the numerous variants of ARM that affect both boys and girls. This chapter will attempt to bring the reader up to date through a historical overview of these fascinating anomalies from the earliest of days until the current era.

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