Cloacal Exstrophy may be a spontaneous error of development that is due to either a somatic mutation or a complex gene-environment interaction . However, within a group of 232 families, 4 multiplex families were identified, suggesting some genetic component in the causation of these anomalies. A single case report of cloacal exstrophy due to an unbalanced translocation between the long arm of chromosome 9 and the long arm of the Y chromosome lends further support to this hypothesis . In a review of 22 cases of cloacal exstrophy, Husmann reported 1 female with trisomy 21 and 1 mosaic (45XO/46XX) .
In a series of six fetuses with cloacal exstrophy examined at the Fetal Care Research Foundation, one genetic anomaly was identified (Table. 14.1).
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.