As bladder function does not change following PSARP, the urodynamic study can be performed at any time during the 1st year of life providing the initial bladder function assessment showed good bladder emptying and the child does not suffer from urinary tract infections. In cloaca patients there is a frequent association with bladder dysfunction and as there may be delay before cloaca reconstruction, it is recommended that all cloaca patients should be screened using urody-namics within the first few months of life. Since a high proportion of the cloaca group showed deterioration after surgical reconstruction, bladder function should be reassessed again postoperatively by urodynamics .
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