Rectal duplications are rare anomalies that present in a variable fashion. A suspicion of such an anom aly helps in investigative planning. A cyst of variable shape and often distended with mucus, lying in the presacral space, forms the diagnosis. These need to be differentiated from other types of anorectal pathology. A single-stage excision of the cyst, usually by the transanal, perineal, or posterior sagittal route is curative in most cases. However, associated ARM and severe hypospadias with perineal duplication cysts, may require complex surgical procedures (involving repair of hypospadias, anorectum, and excision of the cyst) under a covering colostomy to achieve a successful repair.

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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