Contraindications

MRI is contraindicated in patients with cardiac pacemakers, implanted car-dioverter defibrillators, retained pacemaker leads, and other electronic implants. The performance of MRI is also contraindicated in many patients with cerebrovascular clips. However, other metallic implants such as hip pros-theses, prosthetic heart valves, coronary stents, and sternal sutures are not contraindications1.

Table 6.3. MRI protocol at the Robert-Bosch-Krankenhaus Stuttgart

Sequence

Plane

Scout: echo planar (EPI) sequence SSFP cine gradient-echo, T1 weighted

Haste still frame (half Fourier spin echo) spin-echo

True FISP cine gradient-echo, T1 weighted

True FISP cine gradient-echo, T1 weighted

Phase contrast imaging optional

Echo planar imaging

FISP angio sequence (SSFP) gradient-echo, T1 weighted

Inversion recovery

Transverse

Transverse, 6 mm slice thickness, 4 mm gap, distance 10 mm, one breathhold for one cine

Transverse, 6 mm slice thickness, 4 mm gap, distance 10 mm, one breathhold for all slices

Oblique sagittal, aortic arch, aortic valve and descending aorta should be included, if possible; parallel planes to each side in 2 mm distances

Three-chamber view to assess aortic regurgitation

Transverse, if differentiation between slow-flow and thrombus is necessary and result of other sequences is equivocal Test bolus: transverse in the plane of the aortic valve, one image per second for 60 s after gadolinium bolus Application of gadolinium; imaging delayed according to the results of the test bolus

Transverse, candy cane, according to the point of our interest to image thrombus

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