Tyler, a middle-aged engineer, doesn't consider himself depressed or plagued with any emotional problems. But when he sees his primary care doctor, Tyler complains of fatigue, recent weight gain, and a noticeable loss in his sex drive. After ruling out physical causes, the doctor suggests that he may be depressed. Funny, Tyler says, my girlfriend just bought me the Anxiety & Depression Workbook For Dummies and said she thought I was depressed too. Maybe I'll take a look at it.
I can see that I do have signs of depression. I didn't realize that before. And I see that depression particularly shows up in my body. It's affecting my energy, sex drive, and appetite. It's also making me withdraw from my girlfriend, which I can see from my loss of sex drive and lack of desire to be with her Apparently, I also have a few symptoms of anxiety, and I think I always have. It's time to do something about this.
As would be expected, stallions with low circulating testosterone levels have depressed DSO as well as decreasing libido. As mentioned previously, testosterone, hCG and GnRH therapy have been used with mixed success to address this problem. The lack of success may well be due to the fact that depressed pituitary function is the cause of infertility in only 1 of cases (Boyle et al., 1991 Roger and Hughes, 1991). Abnormal hormone levels may be associated with hypothyroidism, resulting in delayed puberty, smaller testes, decreased spermatozoan production and decreased libido. Feminization of the genitalia may also be observed. It has been postulated that changes in thyroid function may be the cause of stallion summer infertility associated with elevated environmental temperatures (Brachen and Wagner, 1983).
Time to compensate for their naturally lowered libido but, regardless of any effect on spermatozoan quality, the number of spermatozoa ejaculated (and, therefore, collected and available for freezing) is reduced during the non-breeding season. Nishikawa et al. (1972a) and Oshida et al. (1972) suggested that a detrimental effect of the non-breeding season may be evident in the percentage of motile spermatozoa post thaw and the pregnancy rates obtained. The differences were not consistent for all stallions, with some showing no effect at all. In practice, many workers encounter few problems with out-of-season semen collection, which is widely carried out (S. Revell, Wales, 1998, personal communication J.M. Parlevliet, The Netherlands, 1998, personal communication).
Contract, thus contributing to the labor contractions that expel the infant. In lactating mothers, it stimulates musclelike cells of the mammary glands to squeeze on the glandular acini and force milk to flow down the ducts to the nipple. In both sexes, OT secretion surges during sexual arousal and orgasm. It may play a role in the propulsion of semen through the male reproductive tract, in uterine contractions that help transport sperm up the female reproductive tract, and in feelings of sexual satisfaction and emotional bonding.
A skin abrasion or myocardial infarction. leukocyte (LOO-co-site) A white blood cell. leukotrienes (LOO-co-TRY-eens) Eicosanoids that promote allergic and inflammatory responses such as vasodilation and neutrophil chemotaxis secreted by basophils, mast cells, and damaged tissues. libido (lih-BEE-do) Sex drive. ligament A cord or band of tough collagenous tissue binding one organ to another, especially one bone to another, and serving to hold organs in place for example, the cruciate ligaments of the knee, broad ligament of the uterus, and falciform ligament of the liver. ligand (LIG-and, LY-gand) A chemical that binds reversibly to a receptor site on a protein, such as a neurotransmitter that binds to a membrane receptor or a substrate that binds to an enzyme. ligand-regulated gate A channel protein in a plasma membrane that opens or closes when a ligand binds to it, enabling the ligand to determine when substances can enter or leave the cell. light microscope (LM) A microscope that...
These glands are intermediate between sweat glands and mammary glands in their degree of development. When a woman is nursing, the areola is protected from chapping and cracking by secretions of the areolar glands and sebacous glands of the areola. The dermis of the areola has smooth muscle fibers that contract in response to cold, touch, and sexual arousal, wrinkling the skin and erecting the nipple.
Pharmacologically induced ejaculation has been reported to be successful in the stallion, using xylazine infusion while standing the stallion in a quiet environment (McDonnell and Love, 1991). Xylazine acts as an a-adrenergic stimulator. Other a-adrenergic drugs used with some success in inducing erection followed by ejaculation include imipramine and chlomipramine (McDonnell and Turner, 1994). Additional stimulation using xylazine has been reported to be required for consistent ejaculation following erection (McDonnell and Odian, 1994 Turner et al., 1995). Using such treatment, Card et al. (1997) reported conception in four out of five mares inseminated. These a-adrenergic drugs are also known to have an effect on the central nervous system, involving the norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin systems, each of which plays a role in male sexual arousal, erection and ejaculation (Turner et al., 1995).
At puberty, androgens stimulate development of body hair and apocrine glands and increased sebaceous secretion estrogens stimulate fat deposition and breast development in females pregnancy may cause pigmentation changes and stretch marks Sensory stimulation of skin important to sexual arousal mammary glands nourish infant Changes in blood flow produce vasocongestion and erection in sexual arousal blood distributes sex hormones, transports nutrients to fetus, and removes fetal wastes pampiniform plexus prevents overheating of testes Sexual arousal increases pulmonary ventilation pregnancy reduces depth of inspiration but increases respiratory rate Provides O2, removes CO2 Valsalva maneuver aids childbirth Sexual arousal constricts internal urinary sphincter prostatic hyperplasia may impede urine flow pregnancy crowds urinary bladder and often causes incontinence Disposes of wastes, maintains electrolyte and pH balance of mother and fetus urethra serves as passageway for semen
Women did not necessarily turn to medical men like Dr. Clarke for their special ''female complaints.'' Indeed, most people relied on domestic medicine, folk remedies, and patent medicines rather than physicians. Nursing the sick was part of ''woman's natural sphere.'' However, some women were able to turn female modesty and the womanly art of healing into flourishing businesses. The most famous example was Lydia E. Pinkham (1819-1883) and her Vegetable Compound, an herbal remedy supposedly effective for dozens of female complaints related to the reproductive organs and functions, but not excluding headache and fatigue. The success of the Vegetable Compound reflected widespread dissatisfaction with orthodox medicine, especially among women, and the genius for marketing and advertising displayed by the Pinkham family. Pinkham's ''female weakness cure'' was a forty proof herbal tonic containing life root, unicorn root, black cohosh, pleurisy root, and fenugreek seeds. Thousand of letters...
Nervous system regulates sex drive, arousal, and orgasm secretes or stimulates pituitary release of many hormones involved in menstrual cycle, sperm production, pregnancy, and lactation Sex hormones influence CNS development and sexual behavior hormones of the menstrual cycle stimulate or inhibit hypothalamus
Properly speaking, Ayurveda is composed of eight branches internal medicine, diseases of the head, surgery, toxicology, demonic diseases, pediatrics, rejuvenation, and aphrodisiacs. The primary objective of the science of life was the maintenance of health, rather than the treatment of disease. Health was not simply the absence of disease, but a state attained and enjoyed only by vigorous pursuit of an elaborate, individualized program of prophylactic measures prescribed by the Ayurvedic doctor.
Most studies support normal fertility rates in females with UC. However, Swedish physicians (Olsen et al, 2002) report a markedly reduced potential of reproductive capacity of women after restorative proctocolectomy. It has been noted that women with IBD have fewer children than unaffected individuals. This may reflect decreased libido, dyspareu-nia, abdominal pain, diarrhea, or a conscious decision not to procreate.
DSM-IV distinguishes among sexual dysfunctions as Sexual Desire Disorder, Sexual Arousal Disorder, Orgasmic Disorder, Sexual Pain Disorders, Sexual Dysfunction Due to a General Medical Condition, Substance-Induced Sexual Dysfunction, and Sexual Dysfunction Not Otherwise Specified. These conditions are different from Paraphilias (e.g., intense sexual urges to unusual objects, Exhibitionism, Voyeurism). Psychopharmacology has played a relatively small role in the treatment of these conditions but that role is increasing. Antianxiety agents and antidepres-sants are helpful in some patients. Other medications (e.g., methohexital sodium) have been used in conjunction with desensitization therapy. Sex hormones (e.g., estrogen, testosterone) have been used in specific cases. With changes in societal attitudes to the discussion of these types of problems also may come increased attention to the development and study of treatment for these conditions. See Sexual Dysfunction Therapy.
In addition to iron supplementation, hormonal therapy may be beneficial in patients with disseminated AVMs who have recurrent, transfusion requiring blood loss. Combination hormone therapy (estradiol 0.035 to 0.05 mg, norethisterone 1 mg) has been found to be highly effective in the prevention of rebleeding in patients with both suspected and verified AVMs and OGIB (Barkin and Ross, 1998). Treatment courses are recommended in six-month intervals to minimize side effects, including breast tenderness and vaginal bleeding in woman and gynecomastia and decreased libido in men.
For some offenders (pedophiles), their preferred sexual object is a child, while other offenders experience and act upon sexual arousal to children because of a range of circumstantial factors. These factors include the availability of a child, the absence of an adult sexual partner, and an assault on the offender's self-esteem, such as a divorce or employment loss. Nevertheless, an initial act because of circumstances appears to enhance risk for subsequent sexual abuse to children. The proportion of sexual offenders who prefer children to those who do not is not known, but it is generally assumed that pedophiles are the minority. However, on average they have a greater number of victims.
The penis consists mainly of three cylindrical bodies called erectile tissues, which fill with blood during sexual arousal and account for its enlargement and erection. A single erectile body, the corpus spongiosum, passes along the ventral side of the penis and encloses the penile urethra. It expands at the distal end to fill the entire glans. The dorsal side of the penis, proximal to the glans, has a corpus cavernosum (plural, corpora cavernosa) on each side. Each is ensheathed in a fibrous tunica albuginea, and they are separated from each other by a median septum. (Note that the testes also have a tunica albuginea and the scrotum also has a median septum.)
Even more horrific, in the wisdom of our hindsight, was a deadly health fad in which people drank tonics made of radium-enriched water. One famous enthusiast was the millionaire playboy and championship golfer Eben Byers (1880-1932), who drank several bottles of radium tonic each day and praised its virtues as a wonder drug and aphrodisiac. Like the factory women, Byers contracted osteosarcoma. By the time of his death, holes had formed in his skull and doctors had removed his entire upper jaw and most of his mandible in an effort to halt the spreading cancer. Byer's bones and teeth were so radioactive they could expose photographic film in the dark. Brain damage left him unable to speak, but he remained mentally alert to the bitter end. His tragic decline and death shocked the world and put an end to the radium tonic fad.
The adrenal glands are positioned superior to the kidneys and are divided into the adrenal cortex and the medulla. The cortex has three layers. The most superficial layer is the zona glomerulosa, which is deep to the adrenal capsule and responsible for the secretion of mineralocorticoid hormones. The next layer is the zona fasciculata which mainly secretes glucocorticoids, hormones responsible for the breakdown of proteins and lipids and the synthesis of glucose. The zona reticularis is the deepest layer of the cortex and it secretes androgens (male sex hormones) and small amounts of estrogens (female sex hormones) in both sexes. The most prevalent male hormone is DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) which is responsible for the development of the sex drive, pubic hair, and axillary hair. The effects of DHEA are minimized in males as the testes secrete greater amounts of testosterone. The adrenal medulla is the deepest part of the adrenal gland and it secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine....
Remedies and case histories taken from the Ebers, Smith, and Kahun papyri provide the most significant insights into ancient Egyptian ideas about health and disease, anatomy and physiology, and magic and medicine. The other medical texts include collections of remedies, aphrodisiacs, incantations against disease, descriptions of fertility tests, and spells for the safety of pregnant women and infants.
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