Changes in chloride concentration are followed with a chloride-specific electrode (Orion 94-17B) coupled to a double junction reference electrode (Orion 90-02). The electrode signal is output to a pH meter or other suitable voltmeter attached to a strip chart recorder. The meter utilized in this laboratory was built according to the method of Cramer and colleagues (57) which allows for expansion of the scale and readings of very small concentration changes. In addition to chloride efflux, channels formed by the Bcl-2 protein family will also permit passage of K+, and a K+-sensitive electrode (Orion 93-19) may be easily substituted for the chloride electrode.
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