Aquaponics Projects For Beginners

Aquaponics 4 You

Aquaponics is a complete beginners guide to learn how to harness the power of both fish and plants. The waste products that fish produce are food for the plants, so that your plants can grow twice as fast as normal plants. Not only will the grow faster, they will also produce 10 times more than the average garden will ever dream of. And you don't ever have to weed! This is a 100% organic way to grow your own food. The Aquaponics guide comes in PDF format and gives you access to easy step-by-step videos to learn to set up your own garden. The book gives you the tools to build a small home garden or a multi-acre farming operation. What you do with the information is up to you! Not only does the complete instruction course come with everything you need to get started, it includes six extra books that cover organic gardening, flower gardening, organic farming, worm farms, cooking organically, and eating healthy. Don't waste your time on a small garden that needs weeding and constant care. Use Aquaponics to grow your best garden every. Read more here...

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Intensive Commercial Aquaculture Definition of Terms

The term 'aquaculture' encompasses all cultural (farming) practices producing biomass of aquatic life forms (which for the purposes of this chapter relates to fin fish). It does not define the purpose. For example, non-commercial government hatcheries are aquaculture facilities, as are commercial fish farms. If both use similar production methods, they can share the same problems. 'Commercial' indicates that the purpose is profit oriented. culture is not necessarily intensive aquaculture. Also, commercial aquaculture facilities are not the only ones using intensive farming methods.

Economic Significance

Fish mycoses are considered difficult to prevent and treat, particularly in intensive fresh-water systems, and are reported to be second only to bacterial disease in economic importance to aquaculture (Meyer, 1991). Water mould epizootics are generally rare in wild fish populations, however, during the 1960s, thousands of wild Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, died during their migration into rivers in the British Isles and southern Ireland from ulcerative dermal necrosis (UDN) (see review by Roberts, 1993). Such outbreaks increased public awareness of the disease in wild salmon stocks and consequently promoted an increase in research. Saprolegnia parasitica has been identified from many fishes and is considered by several investigators as a significant pathogen (Willoughby, 1969). Despite a great deal of work, the cause of UDN was controversial (Stuart and Fuller, 1968) and was not established (Carberry, 1968).

Transmission of the disease

In aquaculture, infected channel catfish are the primary source of E. Ictaluri, with natural transmission occurring primarily through the water column. Horizontal transmission of E. ictaluri was demonstrated by Klesius (1994), in which na ve fish showed clinical infections 12 days postexposure to fish that had died of ESC. Experimental transmission of E. ictaluri is easily achieved by water-borne exposure, i.m. or i.p. injection, intestinal intubation or introducing the bacterium into the nares only (Plumb and Sanchez, 1983 Shotts et al., 1986 Newton et al., 1989 Morrison and Plumb, 1994). Acute clinical disease usually appears at 5-7 days postbath exposure at 25 C. Nusbaum and Morrison (1996) showed that the pathogen invaded the gill and then migrated to other organs and tissues. The nares are a primary site of E. ictaluri invasion, and exposure of this organ to E. ictaluri can initiate chronic ESC (Morrison and Plumb, 1994). It was shown by Mgolomba and Plumb (1992) and Klesius...

Analytical Observational Studies

Epidemiologists most frequently develop or test hypotheses by conducting observational studies in natural environments. Very few analytical observational studies of fish diseases, using valid epidemiological methodology, have been published. Aquaculture researchers have thus far relied heavily on questionnaires, which have inherent problems, such as bias due to poor recall and non-response, to collect data used in epidemiological studies (Jarp et al., 1993). However, several regional and national systems are currently being developed to routinely collect disease and production data from aquaculture sites. Data generated through these systems may prove useful for analytical observational studies. Most epidemiological studies of farmed fish disease have been conducted at the site level (i.e. the site has been the unit of concern).

Economic Considerations and Health Disease Management

Historically, as commercial and non-commercial fish farms expanded in scope and became increasingly intensive, diseases became production bottlenecks. Today this scenario repeats itself as new species become developed for aquaculture (Tilseth, 1990). Emergence of regionally novel diseases is common in aquaculture and these outbreaks can be devastating until farm managers and disease consultants become familiar with the management of the disease this applies to both infectious and non-infectious disorders. The recent dramatic problem associated with the emergence of Hitra disease, a disorder well known to Norwegian fish

Topics For Further Study

Prophylaxis holds the best hope for elimination of birnavirus diseases from aquaculture. Despite considerable research efforts in the past 30 years, no efficacious vaccine against IPN or any other fish viral disease has been produced commercially, although some successes have been noted in the laboratory. However, with the advent of new techniques in biotechnology, it may be possible to develop a subunit vaccine which is enviromentally innocuous and effective in protecting fish from aquatic birnaviruses. 5. Update information on aquatic birnavirus diseases other than IPN. Several diseases caused by aquatic birnaviruses can have a significant impact on aquaculture of non-salmonid species. Virtually nothing is known about these diseases except that they are associated with aquatic birnaviruses. In those countries where these diseases occur, it behoves investigators to expand their information base about these diseases. In addition, this would aid in understandiing...

The Application Of Ecoexergy As Ecological Indicator For Assessment Of Ecosystem Health

The Sacca di Goro is a shallow water embayment of the Po Delta. The surface area is 26 km2 and the total water volume is approximately 40 X 106 m3. The catchment basin is heavily exploited for agriculture, while the lagoon is one of the most important clam (Tapes philippinarum) aquaculture systems in Italy. The combination of all these anthropogenic pressures call for an integrated management that considers all different aspects, from lagoon fluid dynamics, ecology, nutrient cycles, river runoff influence, shellfish farming, macro-algal blooms, and sediments, as well as the socio-economical implication of different possible management strategies. All these factors are responsible for important disruptions in ecosystem functioning characterized by eutrophic and dystrophic conditions in summer (Viaroli et al., 2001), algal blooms, oxygen depletion, and sulfide production (Chapelle et al., 2000). Water quality is the major problem. In fact from 1987 to 1992 the Sacca di Goro experienced...

Control and treatment

The close relatedness of fish and amphibian ranaviruses and the pathogenicity of Bohle iridovirus for barramundi should be kept in mind in programmes for avoidance of pathogens in aquaculture (Hedrick et al., 1992 Ahne et al., 1995). Frogs are ubiquitous on large farms for warm-water fishes. These could be reservoirs and vectors of fish pathogens. Hedrick et al. (1992), Hedrick and McDowell (1995) and Hedrick (1996) consider transcontinental movements of amphibians and exotic ornamental fish as possible reasons for the appearance of similar viruses in Australia and Europe. It was suggested that control be extended to aquatic amphibians and tropical aquarium fishes (Ahne et al., 1995 Hedrick, 1996).

Algal Blooms and Environmental Toxins

As noted by Munro (1990), sea cages are fixed structures, and as a result the fish they constrain become subject to a range of environmental hazards which they cannot avoid. They become biological sentinels for adverse local water quality factors. Natural occurrences such as seasonal algal blooms and related toxicity problems are often encountered in aquaculture. These are serious limiting factors for production where they occur annually.

Treatment and protection

Utilization of prophylactic treatments and implementation of sanitary aquacultural practices, judicious use of legal drugs and chemicals when infections occur, application of vaccines, if available, and use of genetically improved stocks are aids in health management (Plumb, 1994). Because E. tarda is a non-obligate pathogen, it is not possible to completely eliminate or totally prevent the organism's presence in most instances. For example, preventing infected animals (e.g. undesirable fish, turtles, snakes, etc.) from coming into contact with the aquaculture species is impractical, except under certain circumstances, such as closed recirculating systems. Maintaining a suitable oxygen concentration and low carbon dioxide and ammonia, reducing water enrichment and prevention of wide temperature fluctuations are basic to the health-management approach. Although these goals are difficult to attain in intensive or commercial aquaculture, they should be pursued. structures in the...

Disinfection practices and antiviral compounds

Twenty-four antiviral compounds were tested in vitro in CHSE-214 cells and 11 were toxic for the virus (Hasobe and Saneyoshi, 1985). Of these, five were tested in steelhead trout fry and there were more survivors in the treatment groups (14-34 ) than in the control, untreated group (8 ). The five compounds (6-thioinosine, 5-hydroxyuridine, 9-(5)-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl) adenine, virazole and chloroquine) were added to the water daily or on alternate days after infection. Hudson et al. (1988) examined the antiviral compounds amantadine, mitisazone, bis-benzimidazole and ribavirin. Amantadine was very effective against IHNV in rainbow trout cells in culture. The other compounds were also effective but had some associated cytotoxicity. It is likely that the costs of these antiviral compounds make their use prohibitive for aquaculture. An antiviral compound produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens has also been found to be effective against IHNV and O. masou virus (OMV), a fish herpes virus...

Immunity and resistance

The susceptibility of larval and postmetamorphic bivalves to infection by opportunistic microbial organisms is well documented, as is the relative non-pathogenic effect of many similar or identical organisms in larger juveniles and adults of the same species (Davis et al., 1954 Tubiash et al., 1965, 1970 Tubiash, 1975 Elston, 1980a Brown, 1981 Elston et al., 1981 Jeffries, 1982 Elston and Lockwood, 1983 Nottage and Birkbeck, 1986 Bower, 1987a,b Lodeiros et al., 1987 Dungan and Elston, 1988 Leibovitz, 1989 Nottage et al., 1989 Nicolas et al., 1992a Le Deuff et al., 1994 Renault et al., 1994). Most opportunistic infections of larvae result in mass mortality thus acquired immunity, which presupposes survival of the initial challenge and development of biomolecular defence recognition factors (Feng, 1988), is unlikely. Inherent immunity in bivalves is rapid for certain diseases, e.g. Malpeque disease of American oysters, where survivors of initial mortalities are capable of conferring...

Host range and geographical distribution

Found primarily across the south-eastern region, where channel catfish are grown commercially. However, the bacterium has been reported to cause disease among cultured channel catfish in other states, such as Arizona, California, Idaho, Indiana and New Mexico. With the continual worldwide dissemination of channel catfish for aquaculture purposes and an inadequate method of detecting non-clinical infections, it is likely that E. ictaluri will occur in other geographical regions. Enteric septicaemia is generally considered a disease of cultured catfish, but Chen et al. (1994) found indications that the pathogen may also occur in wild populations of channel catfish in California.

Mondego Estuary Description

The Mondego River drains a hydrological basin of approximately 6670 km2 at the western coast of Portugal. Urban wastewater is still discharged into the Mondego without treatment, and the estuary supports industrial activities, desalination ponds, and aquaculture. Additionally, the lower Mondego River valley has about 15,000ha of farming fields (mainly rice paddies), with a significant loss of nutrients to the estuary (Marques, 1989).

Toxicities Arising from the Use of Treatment Chemicals

Based on anecdotal evidence, iatrogenic toxicities, from applied chemical treatments, are unfortunately very common in aquaculture. Indeed, they are so common that case reports rarely find their way into scientific literature, since our awareness of the problem already exists. In contrast, similar problems are relatively rare in other animal production systems, and when they occur spark considerable interest and accordingly are comparatively well documented. The basis of this sharp contrast is multifactorial, and the following are some unique risk factors in aquaculture. Medications are usually delivered to entire populations groups of fish rather than to individual sick animals. This puts more animals at risk to unexpected toxicities. Bath delivery of treatment chemicals is frequently used either in the face of disease, or as disease prophylaxis (Speare and Ferguson, 1989 Bodensteiner et al., 1993 Newbound et al., 1993 Strauss, 1993 Thorburn and Moccia, 1993). This increases the...

Exposure to Red Tide Planktons

Red tides occur globally as a result of rapid growth (a bloom) of various planktonic organisms. Economic losses in aquaculture due to blooms of these organisms are in the order of millions of dollars each year. While there are many species of red tide organisms, the pathophysiological effects of two genera of such organisms are discussed here. To some extent, some of the pathological effects which they cause might be generalized to other planktonic organisms. These examples were selected on the grounds that the physiological investigations have led to some speculation about the mechanisms by which the fish kills occur.

Impaired Growth Performance

The established growth performance measures are considerably easier to apply to evaluate captive stocks. In most aquacultural situations, 'optimal' growth performance for a given species reared under established conditions on a particular diet is easy to measure, and thus any reduction in growth rate can be readily identified. However, even for these well-controlled situations, the value of impaired growth as a diagnostic tool is limited as it is only a preliminary indicator of a problem. Under controlled conditions, such as those found in many fish-farming situations, the quality and quantity of dietary sources probably exert the most significant influence on growth performance. A reduced growth rate, under these conditions, is indicative of reduced food intake, impaired digestion and or assimilation, or altered metabolism resulting in a reduced efficiency of nutrient assimilation. Specific identification of the cause is not possible and other diagnostic methodologies are required to...

Fungi of Nephropidae Dana 1852 genera Astacus Pacifastacus Cambarus Cherax Austropotamobius and Orconectes

Fungi belonging to the oomycete group, Saprolegnia spp., affect crayfish (P clarkii) aquaculture in the USA (Avault and Huner, 1985). Infections of ova are especially serious in overcrowded conditions, which inhibit normal preening behaviour of the female crayfish and removal of the dead or dying eggs.

New Foods and New Factories

The effort to produce and market transgenic salmon and trout is at the leading edge of the Blue Revolution, a movement to use sea creatures to feed the world. The United Nations has estimated that in the long run, the only way to sustain a world population of 10 billion people is to vastly increase (at least 7-fold the current level) the food yield from the oceans in a manner that does not deplete them. Land-based aquaculture may hold part of the answer, with the special dividend that it does not want to redefine the oceans as vast watery farms. Ultimately, the future uses of transgenic fish will be decided politically. In Canada, where both the government and many fisherman are in favor of marketing transgenic fish, the outlook for A F Protein products is good. In the U.S., and even more so in Europe, governments are more cautious and fishermen are not yet pressing for the product. In the U.S. the major political battleground is currently in Maine. Governor Angus King is boldly...

Introduction Of Channel Catfish Viral Disease

Warm-water fin-fish which spend their entire life cycle in fresh water are considered in this chapter. They form the largest segment of the world aquaculture production and a major part of the catch-fish industry in inland waters. The harvest of farmed warm-water fish is increasing, due to investment, refinement in technologies, rapid transfer of advances and a continuous widening of the spectrum of cultivated species. The review on the grass carp reovirus disease in the People's Republic of China (Wolf, 1988) was the first widely accessible account of a viral disease of a warm-water fish in mainland Asia. Expansion and progress in aquaculture and awareness of the importance of fish mortalities in farming operations as well as in feral populations are increasing and they stimulate research on viral fish diseases. Table 5.2. Viruses of catfishes and other fishes of major importance for warm water aquaculture and fisheries. the group of 'other significant diseases' which are of current...

Ecological fallacy and clustering

When fish are exposed to a risk or treatment factor as a group (e.g. oral antibiotics, immersion vaccination, holding-unit specific husbandry factors, etc.), the group should be the unit of analysis and the unit of concern. Sometimes, investigations are conducted in aquaculture in which groups of fish, such as holding units or sites, are the unit of analysis, but the individual fish is the unit of concern. These types of ecological studies are prone to substantial bias, called 'ecological fallacy', since, lacking data on individuals, one can only assume that what is true at the group level also holds true at the individual level. For example, Thorburn et al. (1989) found that groups of non-vaccinated trout with higher prevalence proportions of anti- V. anguillarum antibody-positive fish experienced lower V. anguillarum-specific mortality rates than did those with lower prevalence proportions. The authors emphasized, however, that then to conclude that anti- V. anguillarum antibodies...

Genetic detection techniques

Use of this type of data by regulators would be both unwarranted and dangerous. There is little doubt that the current developments in non-culture-based techniques for the detection of A. salmonicida have the potential to improve our understanding of, and limit the impact of, diseases caused by this pathogen. However, as discussed, adequate validation of the development and utilization of these techniques is critical to their correct interpretation, especially if that interpretation will be used to impose regulatory limitations on aquaculture activities.

Summary And Future Research

Unfertilized Cell Fish

Bacterial kidney disease has been one of the most intractable diseases of salmonid fish. The disease has severely affected aquaculture in both the northern and southern hemispheres however, fully efficacious prophylactic or therapeutic treatments have not been developed. Control of the disease is of utmost practical importance, but, before this can be adequately achieved, more research is required to understand R. salmoninarum virulence factors, transmission and the salmonid immune response to the bacteria.

Transmission of the disease and epidemiology

Present in the 1940s and mortalities were in excess of 90 in brook trout by the late 1970s, the disease was still present, but mortality had dropped to around 40 (L. McCullogh, personal communication). Conversely, a brook trout hatchery known to have IPNV present at enzootic levels for many years has had no virus-induced mortalities for more than 25 years (P.W. Reno, personal observations). It is interesting to note that this hatchery has distributed IPNV-infected brook trout to many other aquaculture facilities, but the virus has not necessarily remained with all of the fish that were moved. For instance, one fish farm received fish from the facility in 1975 and inspection of the stocks indicated the presence of the virus. The only measures taken were to house the fish at the tail-end of the impoundments. When these fish were tested annually, starting in 1987, no virus was detected in them. This is one of only a few instances in which IPNV has been eliminated from a population of...

Species of fish affected and geographical distribution

Grass carp haemorrhagic disease affects young fish and yearlings of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus). It is widespread in the southern regions of mainland China and causes severe, economically devastating losses for the largest national aquaculture production in the world. Mao et al. (1988) reported mortality rates of 50-70 in yearlings. Gudgeon (P. parva) and Gobiocypris rarus (Wang et al., 1993, 1994) are susceptible to experimental infection. The disease is not registered outside mainland China.

Test interpretation at the group level

In aquaculture, diagnostic tests are most frequently used on individual fish (or pooled individuals) to reach conclusions about populations of fish (Thorburn, 1996). Martin et al. (1992) expanded the principles of sensitivity, specificity and predictive values to encompass group- (usually farm-) level testing. Hence, it is possible to assess the impact that diagnostic test errors have on decisions made about groups of fish. Farm-level sensitivity (specificity) is defined as the probability that an infected (non-infected) farm is declared positive (negative), given a specific sampling and diagnostic protocol. Farm-level positive (negative) predictive value is the probability that a farm that is declared positive (negative) is infected (free of infection). Estimates of farm-level sensitivity, specificity and predictive values are critical to the design and interpretation of results from regional disease control and eradication programmes.


The authors thank Pinwen Chiou, Barbara Drolet, Eric Anderson and Patricia Ormonde for their thesis material, which was used in this review. We also thank Patrick Woo for his patience and apologize to all whose work we have not cited. We acknowledge funding by the US Department of Agriculture (to the Western Regional Aquaculture Consortium) under grant 92-38500-7195, project no. 92080441 Oregon Sea Grant with funds from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Office of Sea Grant, Department of Commerce, under grant NA89AA-D-SG108, project R FSD-16, and grant NA36RG451, project R FSD-23 and amendment no. 2 the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (Saltonstall-Kennedy funds), grant NA46FD0490 and the Bonneville Power Administration, projects DE-FG79-88BP92431 and 88-152. This is an Oregon State Agriculture Experiment Station Paper No. 11371.

Damage from Handling

Diseases attributed to traumatic injuries commonly occur during the production cycle of intensively reared salmonids. These injuries stem from handling procedures, abrasions from the housing system, and can be inflicted by other fish and predators. Handling of fish with hands, nets, fish pumps, and grading devices, although generally minimized, is nevertheless part of aquaculture. Routine examples of handling are numerous and include moving fry and fingerlings into larger rearing tanks, grading and splitting parr, vaccinating smolt, moving smolt to sea cages, and grading and splitting fish during grow-out. Malfunctioning fish pumps, graders, and inexperienced fish handlers can turn routine fish grading procedures into serious disease outbreak events. Losses associated with handling procedures increase with the size of the fish being moved. Additionally, warmer water temperature, long handling procedures, and not withholding food before handling increase the risks. Mortalities relating...


The vaccine against Vibrio sp. strain NU-1 uses formalin-killed bacteria (Itami et al., 1989). Injection, immersion and spray exposure to the vaccine all showed progressive protection against live Vibrio sp. injections. Mortality declined 6-10 days postchallenge and was half that of non-vaccinated controls. The development of an effective immersion, spray or microencapsulated feed vaccine appears to be promising for intense shrimp aquaculture (Itami et al., 1989, 1991, 1992).

Sample size

Too small a sample will give an analytical study low power, i.e. a low probability of detecting an association between a risk factor and a disease when such as association truly exists. Searcy-Bernal (1994) reviewed a large number of aquaculture research papers and suggested that many non-significant results have been due to low power. The following formula provides a useful guideline for the number of units which should be included in each group (case and control exposed and non-exposed treated and control) in a case-control study, cohort study or field trial (Snedecor and Cochran, 1989, p. 129)


Fish pathogens, including members of the class Oomycetes, are transmitted via several sources, including wild and farmed fish, their eggs, the water-supply, transport vehicles, movement of staff between aquaculture facilities and farm equipment, such as nets. Transmission within the Oomycetes occurs directly between fish and or eggs, with no intermediate host being involved (Singhal et al, 1987). Susceptibility to infection changes with prevailing circumstances, and several key factors are known to affect both the sensitivity of the fish and the growth of the fungus. These include pollution, low water levels, overcrowding, mechanical trauma, including handling, the failure to remove moribund and dead fish or ova, changes in hormonal status and the result of infection by other organisms (Piper et al, 1982 Plumb, 1984). In addition, there may also be some seasonal variation in inoculum potential (Hunter, 1975). Among wild fish, redd digging and spawning also contribute to physical...

Predisposing factors

Environmental stress factors, including poor water quality, adverse water temperatures and, in aquaculture, handling or overcrowding, can all result in increased occurrences of fungal infections (Bailey, 1984). Annual outbreaks of saprolegniasis in wild brown trout were partially the result of an increase in organic debris in the water and a decreased flow rate (White, 1975). High organic loadings were also identified as a cause of increased infection by S. parasitica (Toor et al., 1983). Furthermore, rainbow trout exposed to sublethal levels of ammonia and nitrite increased their susceptibility to experimental infection with S. parasitica (Carballo and Mu oz, 1991). Social aggression in rainbow trout can increase susceptibility to this fungus (Cross and Willoughby, 1989).

Host range

Several species of Salmo have been shown to be susceptible to IHNV infection and disease. Atlantic salmon fry have suffered at least one epizootic in North America (Mulcahy and Wood, 1986), and sporadic disease outbreaks have occurred in Japan (Yamazaki and Motonishi, 1992). Traxler et al. (1991, 1993) have demonstrated that Atlantic salmon can be infected with IHNV in salt water by immersion, by injection or, most importantly, by cohabitation with infected sockeye salmon. Recently, natural IHNV infections have been diagnosed in Atlantic salmon adults during the marine phase of their life cycle (Traxler et al., 1997). Brown trout are moderately susceptible to experimentally induced IHN (LaPatra and Fryer, 1990), but natural infections and disease outbreaks have occurred in Oregon (Engelking and Kaufman, 1994a,b) and occasional IHN outbreaks have been reported in Japan (Yamazaki and Motonishi, 1992). In France, brown trout may be refractory to IHN (Hill, 1992). Since brown trout and...


Chemotherapeutants have long been used in fin-fish aquaculture (Meyer and Schnick, 1989 Michel and Alderman, 1992) however, there is increasing awareness of the risks associated with their indiscriminant or continuous application. These risks include drug-resistant pathogens, overdosage and impacts on the environment, consumer (health and market perception) and aquaculturist (handling and economics). Moreover, increased restrictions on aquaculture imports between countries with non-complementary drug and chemical regulations (Meyer, 1992 Plumb, 1992 Schnick, 1992 Alderman et aJ, 1994), have led to increased interest in developing alternative disease controls and improving husbandry techniques in order to reduce the need for chemical prophylaxis. can be calculated. Chemotherapeutant treatment of diseases such as BRD of Manila clams, T. philippinarum, has been investigated, and nitrofuran antibiotics found to be effective under experimental conditions. Administration on a commercial...


Adjuvants and the delivery vehicle are extremely important in stimulating a protective immune response in animals. Scientists in academic institutions and vaccine companies are beginning to examine the effect of delivery vehicles, such as liposomes, and different adjuvants on aquaculture vaccines. Until we understand how fish respond to different antigens, developing vaccines for IHNV will be a serendipitous rather than a deliberate pursuit.

Mycotoxins Aflatoxin

Cottonseed meal was the primary cause of these epizootics (Wolf and Jackson, 1963 Ashley et al., 1964 Halver, 1967 Sinnhuber, 1967) however, carcino-genicity of aflatoxin was enhanced by cyclopropenoid fatty acids (malvalic and sterculic acids) occurring naturally in cottonseeds (Lee et al., 1968, 1971 Sinnhuber et al., 1968, 1974 Hendricks et al., 1980a). Epizootics of hepatic carcinomas have occurred more recently (Majeed et al., 1984 Rasmussen et al., 1986), but problems in aquaculture have been reduced by avoiding feed ingredients with high concentrations of aflatoxin (Goldblatt, 1967). Feed ingredients most likely to be contaminated with aflatoxin are corn, cottonseed and peanuts (Lovell, 1989).

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