Table 2

Technology name Sono 3-kalshi Institution, Agency, Company, NGO (1) Sono Diagnostic Center Environment Initiative (SDCEI), Kushtia, Bangladesh (contact Khan et al., 2000a,b see reference below). (2) BRAC, Dhaka Community Hospital, Grameen Bank (3) Department of Public Health Engineering (with Ministry of LGD& C, UNICEF) (4) NGO Forum (with SDC, DANIDA and CAFOD EU Partner NGOs) Technology process(es) (oxidation, passive precipitation sedimentation with naturally occurring iron coagulation,...

Hydrogeology Of The Bengal Basin

The Bengal Basin is one of the World's largest sedimentary basins and has accumulated a great thickness of Tertiary and Quaternary clastic sediments that were transported to the area by the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna river system (Morgan and McIntire, 1959). Bangladesh occupies most of the Bengal Basin and comprises mainly alluvial and deltaic floodplains except for the small uplifted blocks of the Barind and Madhupur Tracts in the central and north-western parts of the country. On the east,...

References

Acharya S.K., Chakraborty P., Lahiri S., Raymahashay B.C., Guha S. and Bhowmik A. 1999. Arsenic poisoning in the Ganges delta. Nature, 401, 545. Akai J., Yoshimura T., Ohfuji H., Koike H., Yabe J., Nakamura T., Matsui K., Oyama A., Nakano S., Mashiko M., Kawashima S., Arakawa H., Fujimaki R., Akai K., Shoji H. and Yokota T. 1998. Origin minerals for arsenic pollution in Bangladesh groundwater. The 3rd Forum on Arsenic Contamination of Groundwater in Asia Effects, Cause and Measures, November...

Info

Fraction C the residual of the separation consists of light, rounded grains, which are about 95-98 of the total sediment. These different fractions have been powdered and examined with a Siemens D 5000 powder diffractometer using Cu-target and an excitation condition of 45 kV and 39 mA. The scattered X-rays have been split by graphite secondary-monochromator in front of the counter. The phases have been identified by the software supplied with the instrument, called DIFFRACT version 3.0 (1991)...

Surface Water Contamination In Chile

The River Loa and its tributaries, flowing from the Andes Mountains and their foothills to the sea to the north of Antofagusta is contaminated by arsenic both from natural (volcanic and geothermal) sources in the headwaters, and from effluents arising from the mining and smelting of copper ores at Chuquinamata (responsible for some 10 of the economy of Chile). Current research funded by the European Commission involving partners in Sardinia, France, UK and Latin America aims to (a) apportion...

In Situ Chemical Fixation

In situ chemical fixation (ISF) is presently being investigated as a potential remediation technology for both soil and groundwater contaminated with arsenic. In this process, a liquid reagent would be applied to contaminated soil to immobilize the arsenic. Another reagent may be required to change the oxidation-reduction state of a cation to induce coprecipitation of the arsenic this is known as redox manipulation (J.R. Howell in Harts-field, 1999). Variations of ISF processes have been...

Materials And Methods

AH laboratory reagents were of analytical grade and purchased from Ajax Chemicals (Australia). Dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) was purchased from Sigma-Aldrich Chemicals (Castle Hill, NSW) and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) from ChemService (West Chester, PA, via Alltech, Australia). All biochemical were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich unless otherwise specified. Primers Taq DNA polymerase was from Genework, Australia Polyacrylamide gel, silver stain (161-2449), APS and Temed from Bio-Rad cycle...

Results

The arsenic level in hair was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry using a GBC 906 automatic multi-element atomic absorption spectrophotometer with the GBC HG 3000 hydride generator (Chapple and Danby, 1990). The arsenic levels ranged from 0.48 to 26.94 Mg g. The mean arsenic concentration was 3.52 Mg g (SD 3.58), and the median arsenic concentration was 2.42 Mg g. Only 44 of 529 (8.3 ) samples had normal arsenic concentrations (< 1 Mg g). Half of them had arsenic concentrations...

Transmethylation Reactions

Table 1 summarizes many of the physiological substrates that compete for the pool of methyl groups transferred via SAM (Michal, 1999). In addition to identifying the methyla-tion substrate, the table also includes the name of the responsible enzyme and its methylated product. Each of the substrates listed in Table 1 is of critical metabolic importance. DNA and RNA are central to cellular function and propagation. The methylation status of these biopolymers is important to the regulation of...

Theories Of Arsenic Mobilization

Three mechanisms might explain arsenic pollution of groundwater in the Bengal Basin, viz (1) arsenic is released by oxidation of arsenic-bearing pyrite in the alluvial sediments (Mallick and Rajagopal, 1996 Mandal et al., 1998) (2) arsenic anions sorbed to aquifer minerals are displaced into solution by competitive exchange of phosphate anions sourced from over-application of fertilizer to surface soils (Acharyya et al., 2000) Fig. 3. Distribution of arsenic with depth in the six Divisions of...

Table 1

GR Activity and total GSH in primary rat hepatocytes exposed to iAsm or MAsm for 30 min (mean SD, The 30-min exposures used in this study did not significantly change cell viability with exception of the exposure to 10 xM MAsm, which decreased cell viability by about 20 . * Unit (U) is defined as nmol NADPH oxidized per minute. ** Total GSH represents a sum of the reduced and oxidized forms. *** Values were found significantly different (P < 0.05) from control values by ANOVA and the Dunnett...

Treatment Technologies For Arsenic Removal

Technologies used in Latin America for arsenic removal from water supplies include chemical precipitation through coagulation filtration and softening. Adsorption in local materials hematite, bone, clay has also been tested. An arsenic removal method was developed thirty years ago Trelles et al., 1970 Callegaro et al., 1976 Dodero et al., 1978 . Recently chemical coagulation studies have been conducted at the water treatment plant of Pompeya in San Antonio de los Cobres, province of Los Andes....

Susceptibility To Ischemic Heart Disease

In a cohort study of ischemic heart disease among residents in the BFD-endemic area, a significant biological gradient was observed between the incidence of ischemic heart disease and the cumulative arsenic exposure Chen et al., 1996 . There was also an increased incidence of ischemic heart disease for patients affected with BFD as compared with the unaffected. The status of BFD may be considered an indicator of long-term arsenic exposure, systemic atherosclerosis and or susceptibility to...

Ioccurrence And Exposure

Arsenic the 'King of Poisons' in Antiquity - a Possible Threat to Future Sustainability 1 International Perspective on Naturally Occurring Arsenic Problems in Groundwater . 9 Pauline L. Smedley, David G. Kinniburgh, Ihtishamul Huq, Luo Zhen-dong, Hugo B. Nicolli Characterization of Arsenic-bearing Sediments in the Gangetic Delta of West Bengal, 27 Dipankar Chakraborti, Gautam K. Basu, Bhajan K. Biswas, Uttam K. Chowdhury, Mohammad Mahmudur Rahman, Kunal Paul, Tarit Roy Chowdhury, Chitta R....

Methionine Regeneration

Another metabolic option for homocysteine is remethylation to generate methionine. This can occur by either of two routes. The first pathway for methionine regeneration utilizes betaine as a methyl donor and functions only in the human liver and kidney House et al., 1999 . Betaine is generated by the oxidation of choline using flavine adenine dinucleotide FAD as the oxidizing agent Michal, 1999 . The second pathway which is available in all tissues utilizes methylcobalamin, a form of vitamin...

The Redox Driver

The lateral and vertical differences in arsenic concentration in well water Fig. 3 see also McArthur et al., 2001 do not arise simply from variations in the abundance of arsenic in aquifer sediments, since sediments in the Bengal Basin are not unusual in the amount of arsenic they contain. Concentrations of arsenic exceed the low tens of ppm only where traces of early diagenetic, arsenical pyrite occur where organic matter is abundant e.g. at 10 m beneath Samta Village arsenic peaks at 60 mg...

Introduction

Arsenic is a ubiquitous element in the crust of the earth. It is mainly transported in the environment by water. High arsenic concentrations in groundwater have been observed in central Argentina, northern Chile, north-central Mexico, parts of west, mid-west and northeast United States, Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang and Shanxi in China, West Bengal in India, Bangladesh, Hungary, Algeria and Taiwan Pontius et al., 1994 Chen et al., 1999 . There is a shortage of surface water available for drinking...

Vitamin Cofactors

Folate, cobalamin, vitamin B-6, riboflavin and niacin are required for the regeneration of methionine in extrahepatic tissues. Niacin is necessary to convert adenosylcobalamin to methylcobalamin and 5,10-methylene tetrahydrofolate to 5-methyl tetrahydrofolate. Paradoxically, one of the pathways for the conversion of adenosylcobalamin to methylcobal-amin uses SAM as the methyl donor Michal, 1999 Stipanuk, 2000 . Folate and cobalamin are frequently deficient in women of childbearing age and the...

Methodology

Participants for this study were residents, between 15 and 60 years old, from rural areas located at the center of northern Mexico. The individuals were selected from three villages with different histories of As exposure via drinking water. Seventeen individuals 9 men and 8 women were selected from village of Santa Ana, Coahuila, where they had been exposed for more than 35 years to 0.4 mg As l in its drinking water. However, due to changes in the village's water supply, the As content has...

Brief Curriculum Vitae

Kurt Irgolic was born on 28-9-1938 in Hartberg, a town in the southeast of Austria. He finished his education as primary school teacher in 1957. At that time the unemployment rate for school teachers was very high so he decided to study chemistry at the Karl-Fran-zens-University Graz, because he was always very interested in chemistry. The real reason for his decision to study chemistry was his mother because she preferred a chemistry student, who is sometimes at home to an unemployed primary...

Research

Kurt Irgolic had the conviction that science only works when it is interdisciplinary. His vision on science is manifested in the close cooperation with epidemiologists, geologists and biologists all over the world. The elements arsenic and selenium were definitely his dominant research topics. His profound knowledge on arsenic was the reason why he was a member of the Arsenic Task Force of the Society of Environmental Geochemistry and Health since 1993. Until a few years ago, knowledge of...

Discussion

The three case studies described show some important similarities and distinctions that serve to highlight the principal conditions under which As release into solution can take place. Clearly, mobilisation of As can be achieved over a wide range of redox conditions. Oxidising conditions with high pH values characterise the Argentine groundwaters, while strongly reducing conditions involving sulphate reduction characterise both the Bangladesh and Huhhot Basin groundwaters. Documented evidence...

Chair Of The Institute Of Analytical Chemistry Karlfranzensuniversity Graz

When Kurt Irgolic became Professor of Analytical Chemistry at the Karl-Franzens-Uni-versity of Graz in September 1989, he found himself at the head of a deeply sleeping department. The equipment was dominated by burettes and platinum crucibles. The most modern instrument was a HP UV Visible spectrophotometer. With his experience from Texas A amp M, he knew that good research in analytical chemistry is only possible with modern instruments. In his negotiations with the Science Minister he was...

Preface

The Society of Environmental Geochemistry and Health SEGH Fourth International Conference on Arsenic Exposure and Health Effects was held June 18-22, 2000 in San Diego, California. Both public and private groups sponsored the conference. In addition to SEGH and the University of Colorado at Denver, other sponsors included the US Environmental Protection Agency US EPA , the Electric Power Research Institute EPRI , the International Council on Metals in the Environment ICME , Kennecott...