Traditional Chinese Medicine

A large population in South East Asia has used TCM for thousands of years, and it is still practised in parallel with western medicine in the healthcare system in China owing to its unique theoretical basis and proven therapeutic efficacy. The theory and practise of TCM is complex and space does not permit a detailed consideration here however, a brief account is given below in order to help the reader appreciate the use of Artemisia species in TCM. The underlying principle of TCM lies in the...

Artemisia Annua In Chinese Traditional Medicine

Yeung (1985), in a short monograph on Qing Hao gives A. apiacea Hance as a synonym for A. annua and describes the taste and property of the herb as bitter, pungent and cold. Its functions are antimalarial, to reduce the heat caused by deficiency of Yin, and to clear the summer heat. The medicinal uses of Qing Hao are given as malaria, febrile diseases, tidal fever, low grade fever and summer heat stroke. Although Qing Hao may be used as a cooling herb for the relief of symptoms, TCM places...

The Discovery Of Artemisinin

Qing Hao is a herb commonly used in China with a long history of use as an antipyretic to treat the alternate chill and fever symptoms of malaria and other heat syndromes in the traditional Chinese medical system. The name Qing Hao first appeared in a silk book excavated from the tomb at Mawangdui belonging to the Han dynasty it was entitled Wu Shi Er Bin Fang (Prescriptions for Fifty-two ailments) and dated from as early as 168 BC, and described the use of Qing Hao for the treatment of...

Ethnobotany

The species is most popular in Mexico as a remedy for various gastrointestinal disorders. The modern name estafiate is derived from the Nahua term iztauhyatl bitter salty is its water and refers to the bitter taste of the leaf extracts. In the following section the uses of this plant in historical and modern times is discussed. For the history of the uses of this plant in the period before and after the conquest we have to rely on some colonial codices. The best known ones are the Codex Cruz...

Info

Shaped into moxa cones or prepared as moxa sticks for use. A good example of the therapeutic application of the mugwort moxa stick is its use to stimulate acupuncture point BL 67, (Zhi Yin), to promote the turning of a foetus in breech presentation. This technique is taught in every TCM university in China and a recent randomised, controlled clinical study demonstrated its effectiveness (Cardini and Huang, 1998). Pure moxa sticks contain only mugwort as the main ingredient, while medicated moxa...

Biological Properties

A number of studies have been undertaken into the bioactive properties of the volatile oil from A. dracunculus Tan et al., 1998 . In two studies into insect responses to the volatile oil and its constituents, Papilio spp. evoked different reactions to the oil Baur and Feeny, 1995 Thompson et al., 1990 . Using GC coupled electroantennograms, they were able to demonstrate which components from the oil were active in determining oviposition preference and larval performance, areas where plant...

Other Species Of Artemisia Used In Traditional Chinese Medicine

There are 184 artemisia species and 44 varieties found in China. Most of them are distributed in the north, northeast and north west of China, with some in eastern, central and southern areas. Most species of Artemisia contain polyacetylenes, flavonoids and terpenoids but some species also contain other types of constituents such as cyanogenic glycosides and coumarins. According to a national survey of the medicinal plants of China, more than sixty Artemisia species are used in different areas...

References

Akhila, A. and Tiwari, R. 1986 Chemistry of davana oil a review. CROMAP, 8 3 , 128-138. Akhila, A. Sharma, P.K. and Thakur, R.S. 1986 A novel biosynthesis of irregular sesquiterpene artemone in Artemisia pattens. Tetrahedron Lett., 27, 5885-5888. Alankararao, G.S.J.G. and Rajendra Prasad, Y. 1981 Investigations on the antibacterial activity of essential oils from Artemisia pattens Wall. amp Artemisia vulgaris Linn. Indian Perfum., 25, 110-111. Alankara Rao, G.S.J.G and Rajendra Prasad, Y. 1981a...

Preface

The genus Artemisia comprises some 400 species including a number which are important for their medicinal properties. Chief among these is A. annua, the source of the antimalarial drug artemisinin. According to a legend, in the 5th century B.C. the city of Selinus in Sicily was delivered from a plague thought to be malaria and this event was commemorated by the minting of a coin. The obverse of the Selinus coin figure la , shows a chariot driven by Artemis representing the women of the city who...

Artemisia Princeps

Chemical structures are indicated by page numbers in italics. Abdominal pain, 65 Abortifacient, 69, 145 Abraham's reaction, 64 Abrotanum section , 6, 7, 8, 27 Abrotine, 55 Abscesses, 109 Abscicic acid, 214, 215 methyl ester, 214, 215 Absinthe, 11, 12, 57, 79, 81, 99, 114, 159 Absinthin, 11, 12, 22, 55, 56, 58, 59, 82, 83, 99 Absinthism, 56 Absinthium, 79 Absinthium, section, 6, 7, 8, 27 Absinthol, 82 Absorption, of artemisinin and derivatives, 228,229 Acetin-7-glycoside, 27 Acetoeugenol, 128...

Botany

The botanical description of davana, as given by Narayana et al. 1978 , is as follows Davana is an annual, erect, branched, aromatic herb, 40-60 cm high and covered with greyish-white tomentose. Leaves are bluish-green in colour, alternate, exstipulate, petiolate, lobed to pinnatisect and covered with greyish-white tomentose. Capitula are peduncled to sessile, axillary or forming lax racemes, simple, heterogamous with yellow florets. Involucre, two or more seriate, with ovate to...

Biosynthesis And Sites Of Synthesis Of Some Artemisia Secondary Metabolites

As we described in the previous section, the main secondary products of the genus Artemisia are terpenoids and flavonoids. The biochemical pathways and site of synthesis of most of these molecules have been investigated during the last two decades and this section will review some of the anatomical and biochemical features of metabolite production. We will start from the sites of synthesis and then give a short review of the biochemical pathways leading to the production of the most common...

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Temperatures are recorded as monthly means Takahashi and Arakawa, 1981 . NA Not available, a No leaves only flowers, b No leaves only ceased flowers and fruit. a height of two metres. Flowering did not commence until late February 1996, but only on some plants. None of the flowers from these plants set viable seed J.C. Laughlin, unpublished data . In Madagascar at Antananarivo Latitude 18 52'S at an elevation of ca. 1500 metres above sea level A. Annua plantlets resulting from a cross between...

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Figure 1 Some eudesmanolides isolated from A. herba-alba Fig. 1 shows the structures of a number of eudesmanolides isolated from Moroccan A. herba-alba Boriky et al, 1996 . Chemical variability with regard to the pattern of sesquiterpene lactones is considerable as found also for other members of this genus. Based on their sesquiterpene lactones at least 6 different chemotypes of A. herba-alba growing in arid zones of Egypt and Israel could be discerned Gordon et al., 1981 Segal et al, 1977...

Eudesmanolides From Artemisia Santonicum

Adekenov, S.M., Rakhimova, B.B., Dzhazin, K.A., Alikov, V.B., Shaushekov, Z.K., Toregozhina, Zh.R. et al. 1995 Sesquiterpene lactones from Artemisia glabella. Fitoterapia, 66, 142-146. Ahmad, A. and Misra, L.N. 1994 Terpenoids from Artemisia annua and constituents of its essential oil. Phytochemistry, 37, 183-186. Ahmed, A.A., Aboul-El-Ela, M., Jakupovic, J., Seif El-Din, A.A. and Sabri, N. 1990 Eudesmanolides and other constituents from Artemisia herba-alba. Phytochemistry, 29, 3661-3663....

General Features Of The Asteraceae Family

The genus Artemisia is one of the largest and most widely distributed of the nearly 100 genera in the tribe Anthemideae of the Asteraceae Compositae . Asteraceae is a natural family, with well established limits and a basic uniformity of floral structure, represented in all its members by the common possession of characters such as aggregation of the flowers into capitula and production of achenes cypselae as the typical fruits of the family. The cypsela structure, the presence or not of a...

Chemical Overview And Chemotaxonomy

Several secondary metabolites characterise the chemical composition of the genus Artemisia. A survey of the literature indicates that almost all classes of compounds are present in the genus, with particular reference to terpenoids and flavonoids. However, wax constituents, polyacetylenes and, to a lesser extent, nitrogen containing molecules have also been found in several species. The wide array of molecules present in the genus and the distribution of plants in several different habitats...