Artemisia Princeps

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Chemical structures are indicated by page numbers in italics.

Abdominal pain, 65 Abortifacient, 69, 145 Abraham's reaction, 64 Abrotanum (section), 6, 7, 8, 27 Abrotine, 55 Abscesses, 109 Abscicic acid, 214, 215

methyl ester, 214, 215 Absinthe, 11, 12, 57, 79, 81, 99, 114, 159

Absinthii Herba, 79

83, 99 Absinthism, 56 Absinthium, 79

Absinthium, section, 6, 7, 8, 27 Absinthol, 82

Absorption, of artemisinin and derivatives,

272 Acacetin, 27 Acerosin, 27

N-(2'-Acetaldehydo)-ll-aza-artemisinin,

228,229 Acetin-7-glycoside, 27 Acetoeugenol, 128 Acetonitrile, 258-260, 267 8 a-Acetoxyarmexifolin, 111 Acetyl-CoA, 35 2-Acetyl-5-methylfuran, 128 Achillea, 3, 5 Acid insoluble ash, 53-54 Acifluorfen, 178 Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, 9 Acorus calamus, 14 Actin, 266

Acupuncture, 151, 154, 156 Adverse effects, of artemisinin and derivatives, 298, 299, 318 Aesculaen, 144

Aesculetin, 26, 144, see also Esculetin African wormwood, 9

Agrobacterium

A. rhizogenes, 30, 85 A. tumefaciens, 30 Agropinene, 18 Aiye, 65 Ajenjo, 79 Alantolactone, 69 Albumin, 266 Alkanes, 27 iso-, 28

Alkylation, 252, 263-268, 270, 271 N-Alkyl-ll-aza-9-desmethylartemisinins,

228, 229 Allelopathy, 18, 30 Allergenic, 145 Allylanisole, 93

12jS-Allyldeoxoartemisinin, 227 Alsem, 79 Aluminium, 175 Amenorrhoea, 145, 154 4-Aminoquinoline, 250 Ammonium, nitrate, 173 sulphate, 173 Amodiaquine, 298, 317 Amorphane, 212 Amy da sinensis, 160 ß-Amylase, 34 a-Amyrenone, 214 a-Amyrin, 214 /3-Amyrin, 214

acetate, 214 Anabsinthin, 11, 22, 56 Analgesic, 65, 81, 82, 109, 110, 154 Anemarrhea aspholeloides, 160 Anemarrhenae asphodeloides, 153 Angelica, 81

A. dahurica, 156 A. pubescens, 156 Angiosperms, 28

Anhydrodihydroartemisinin, 224, 230

Anise, 81, 92 Annphenone, 216 Annuadiepoxide, 216 Annual wormwood, 10, 159 Annulide, 213, 214 Anopheles, 159, 249

A. dirus, 279 Anorexia, 145 Antagonism, 277, 278, 303 Anthanasineae, 5

109, 110, 111, 114, 131, 145 Anthemideae, 1, 4, 8, 15, 22, 24, 108 karyology, 4 molecular systematics, 5 Anthemidineae, 5 Anthemis, 3 Antiatherogenic, 10

145,185 Antibiotic, 9, 24, 55 Antidiabetic, 69 Antidote, 103, 145, 156 Anti-emetic, 109, 110 Antifeedant, 9 Antifolates, 277

Antifungal, 9, 60, 69, 95, 111, 133, 145 Antihepatoxic, 9, 154 Anti-inflammatory, 70, 114, 154 Antimalarial, 24, 54, 59, 82, 99, 142, 150, 152, 159, 197, 212, 214, 218, 220-237, 249, 263, 264, 275, 289 drug combinations, 277, 279, 290, 292, 293,301, 303,309,310, 317-319 drug policy, 309-321 drug resistance, 252, 276-280, 289, 292, 297-302, 317, 319 Antimetastatic, 82

Antimicrobial, 9, 60, 94, 111, 163, see also

Antibacterial Antimutagenic, 93 Antimycotic, see Antifungal Antioxidant, 93 Antiparasitic, 110, 156 Antiphlogistic, 9

Antiplasmodial, 220-237, 253, 254, 259, 260, 262, 264, 266, 272, see also Antimalarial

Antiproliferative, 9 Antipruritic, 65

Antirheumatic, 155 Antiseptic, 22, 54, 68, 80 Antispasmodic, 80, 101,103 Antitumour, 10, 82 Antitussive, 155 Aotus, 230

Apigenin, 24, 26, 27,143,144 Apigenin-7-methyl ester, 27 Apiole, 70

Appetite stimulant, 54, 55, 71, 144

Appetite loss, 145

Apple-pie, 139

Arctoteae, 4

Arglabin, 23, 25

Arglanin, 22, 111,112

Argolide, 23

Argy wormwood, 65

Armefolin, 111, 113

Armexifolin, 111, 112

Armexine, 111, 112

Armoise, 79

Aromadendrene, 128

alio-, 128 Aromatherapy, 133 Artabotrys unciatus, 280 Artabsin, 55-57, 58, 59 Arteannuic acid, 63, 184, 212, 215 Arteannuin, 150, 212 A to G, 212, 213 B, 35, 63, 64, 213, 214, 217 B, isolation, 220 D, 213, 225, 229 G, 255, 256 Artecalin, 22 Artecef B, 291

Artedouglasia oxide, 128, 130 Arteether, 11, 59,160, 178, 221, 225, 230, 251, 268, 269, 272-276, 279 antimalarial use, 290-292, 295, 297, 314

bioavailability, 272, 273 de-ethylation, 275, 276 microbial transformation, 228-230 Arteflene, 280

Artelinate, see Artelinic acid

Artelinic acid, 221, 223, 251, 274, 297

¡3-, 221,222 Artemether, 1, 59, 160, 221, 225, 237, 251, 252, 257, 258, 268, 269, 272, 273, 277

antimalarial use, 290, 291, 293, 294, 295, 300, 301, 314, 317, 319, 320 bioavailability, 272, 273 microbial metabolites, 255 Artemetin, 214, 216 Artemexfolin, 111, 112 Artemin, 23, 25 5-ep/'-Artemin, 23 Artemis, ix, 79, 91 Artemisene, 34 Artemisia,

(section), 27 chemotaxonomy, 14 essential oil variation, 15 in Chinese medicine, 149-156 morphology, 6 taxonomy, 6, 14 Artemisia abrotanum, 10, 13, 18, 21, 22,

29,51,54, 55, 159 Artemisia absinthium, 55-59, 70, 72, 79-89, 99,114,155,159 analysis, 58-59 description, 57, 79 essential oil, 82, 85, 86 hairy root culture, 93 propagation, 79 quality, 57-59 toxic effects, 81 uses, 55, 81 Artemisia acetate, 15 Artemisia adamsi, 17, 155 Artemisia afra, 9, 27, 28 oil, 17

Artemisia alba, 15, 16, 18, 21, 22, 28-30 Artemisia alcohol, 15, 101, 102, 211, 212 Artemisia anethifolia, 154,155 Artemisia anethoides, 154, 155 Artemisia angustissima, 155 Artemisia annua, 10, 18, 21, 22-24, 28, 51, 59, 99,149-149, 150, 152, 153,155, 160, 278,280,310 analysis, 61

artemisinin content, 162, 181, 183, 197-207

chemotypes, 11, 60 clinical trial, 153 clones, 163 coumarins, 216 crude extracts, 189 cultivation, 11, 159-195, 280 description, 60, 61, 161 diseases and pests, 178-179 distribution, 161 drying, 188-189 effect of soil acidity, 174 effect of nutrients, 172-173 essential oil, 15, 60, 163, 185, 186, 211

establishment time, 168-172 flavonoids, 214 flowers, 182 genetics, 197-209 growth regulation, 179, 180 harvesting, 185-188 hybrids, 163 irrigation, 179 lipids, 216

monoterpenes, 211, 212 pellets, 189

phenolic compounds, 216 phytochemistry, 211-220 population density, 175 production in China, 164 quality, 61

seed, 162,163, 167,168, 180 sesquiterpenes, 212-214 steroids, 214 trichomes, 32 triterpenoids, 214 uses in Chinese medicine, 149, 152-153 Artemisia anomala, 155 var tomentella, 156 Artemisia apiacea, 150, 152, 160 Artemisia arborescens, 13, 17, 27 Artemisia arbuscula, 27 Artemisia arctica ssp. saxicola, 27 Artemisia argentea, 23 Artemisia argyi, 14, 23, 65, 66 description, 65 essential oil, 65 quality, 66 uses, 65

Artemisia argyri, 156 var gracilis, 156 Artemisia atrovirens, 155 Artemisia austriaca, 27, 29 Artemisia balanchorum, 10, 22, 30 Artemisia barrelieri, 23 Artemisia brachyloba, 14, 155 Artemisia californica, 22 Artemisia camelorum, 38 Artemisia campestris, 14, 27, 31 ssp. borealis, 4, 18, 21, 22 ssp. campestris, 4, 18, 21, 22 ssp. maritima, 33 Artemisia cana, 27

Artemisia capillaris, 12, 51, 70, 154, 155 description, 71 essential oil, 70 Artemisia capillus, 9 Artemisia caruifolia, 155

var. schochii, 155 Artemisia chamaemelifolia, 13, 14, 18, 21, 22

Artemisia chrithmifolia, 18 Artemisia cina, 9, 22, 51, 66-68 analysis, 67, 68 description, 66 quality, 66 uses, 66

Artemisia coerulescens, 23, 29, 32

ssp. cretacea, 9 Artemisia conaensis, 155 Artemisia demissa, 154, 155 Artemisia deserti, 23 Artemisia deversa, 156 Artemisia douglasia, 22 Artemisia douglasiana, 10, 23 Artemisia dracunculoides, 28, 29, 51 Artemisia dracunculus, 9, 12, 17, 68, 69, 91-97,155, 159 analysis, 69 cell culture, 93 chemical races, 68 constituents, 68 cv Piemontese, 93 essential oil, 68, 91-94 oil production, 93 propagation, 91 uses, 68, 93, 94 Artemisia dubia, 155

var. subdigitata, 155 Artemisia emeiensis, 156 Artemisia eriopoda, 23, 155 Artemisia feddei, 23 Artemisia fragrans, 23 Artemisia frígida, 17, 23, 156 Artemisia gelinii, 15 Artemisia genipi, 18, 21, 22, 31 Artemisia giraldii, 24 Artemisia glabella, 23 Artemisia glacialis, 18, 21, 22 Artemisia gracilescens, 23 Artemisia halodendron, 155 Artemisia hedinii, 155 essential oil, 101 Artemisia herba-alba, 9, 10, 23, 27, 99-105 chemotypes, 101 constituents, 100-102 description, 99-100 uses, 99,101,103 Artemisia hololeuca, 15 Artemisia hugueti, 23 Artemisia ifranensis, 23 Artemisia igniaria, 156 Artemisia inculta, 100 Artemisia indica, 14, 155 Artemisia integrifolia, 155 Artemisia japónica, 155 Artemisia judaica, 17, 27 Artemisia keiskeana, 155 Artemisia kemrudica, 38 Artemisia ketone, 15, 16, 60, 185, 211, 212

Artemisia klotzchiana, 24 Artemisia laciniata, 28 Artemisia lactifolia, 155 Artemisia lagocephala, 155 Artemisia lancea, 155 Artemisia lavandulaefolia, 155 Artemisia lerchiana, 23 Artemisia lessingiana, 38 Artemisia leucophylla, 155 Artemisia littoricola, 155 Artemisia longiloba, 27 Artemisia ludoviciana, 23, 29, 107-114 constituents, 110-111 description, 108 ethnobotany, 108-11 ssp. albula, 108

ssp. mexicana, 11, 107-117 uses, 108-111, 114 Artemisia macrocepbala, 17, 155 Artemisia mansburica, 155 Artemisia maritima, 17, 51 constituents, 69 description, 69 uses, 69 Artemisia marschalliana, 28 Artemisia mattfeldii, 155 Artemisia mesatlantica, 23, 27 Artemisia molinieri, 29 Artemisia mongolica, 23, 155 Artemisia monosperma, 21 Artemisia moorcroftiana, 156 Artemisia mutellina, 12 Artemisia nilagarica, 13 Artemisia nitida, 32, 33 Artemisia nitrosa, 23 Artemisia nova, 30 Artemisia ordosica, 155 Artemisia orientali-hengduangensis, 156 Artemisia pallens, 17, 23, 119-137 cultivation, 120-123 constituents, 128-129, 132 description, 119 diseases and pests, 125 essential oil, 119-120, 123-131 genetics, 124 uses, 131, 133 Artemisia pamirica, 17 Artemisia pauciflora, 38 Artemisia persica, 29 Artemisia petrosa, 12, 21, 22

ssp. eriantba, 18 Artemisia phaeolepis, 23 Artemisia pontica, 11, 12, 15, 23, 24, 28, 29, 51, 70 essential oil, 70 uses, 70 Artemisia princeps, 10,155

var. orientalis, 9, 18 Artemisia pygmaea, 24 Artemisia reptans, 23 Artemisia rothrockii, 27 Artemisia roxburgbiana, 18, 156 Artemisia rupestris, 155 Artemisia rutifolia, 23 Artemisia sacrorum, 24, 156

var. messerscbmidtina, 156 Artemisia santolina, 11, 38 Artemisia santolinifolia, 17, 23 Artemisia santonicum, 23 Artemisia scoparia, 10,18, 24, 51, 70, 154, 155

description, 71 essential oil, 70 Artemisia selengensis, 155 Artemisia sieberi, 15 Artemisia siversiana, 28, 29 Artemisia sieversiana, 156 Artemisia smitbii, 156 Artemisia spbaerocephala, 17, 30 Artemisia splendens, 23 Artemisia stolonifera, 24 Artemisia sylvatica, 155 Artemisia tanacetifolia, 155 Artemisia tbuscula, 17 Artemisia tournefortiana, 23, 156 Artemisia tridentata, 15, 27, 30 ssp. tridentata, 38 ssp. vaseyana, 28, 38 ssp. wyomingensis, 38 Artemisia triene, 15, 142, 143 Artemisia turcomanica, 23 Artemisia umbelliformis, 12, 18, 21, 22, 23, 31, 32

Artemisia vallesiaca, 12, 18, 21, 22

Artemisia verbenacea, 156

Artemisia verlotiorum, 14, 17, 18, 21, 22,

29, 72, 156 Artemisia vestita, 18, 155 Artemisia vulgaris, 12-14, 18, 21, 22, 28, 29, 39, 51, 71-73, 99,139-147, 154, 155, 159 adverse effects, 71 analysis, 72, 73 description, 71, 72, 139-140 essential oil, 17, 71, 139 quality, 72 uses, 71, 145 var./ssp. mexicana, 108 Artemisia xeropbytica, 23 Artemisin, 66, 214, 215 Artemisineae, 5

Artemisinic acid, 11, 33, 35, 60, 64, 160, 163, 176, 179, 191, 199, 212, 214,115, 119, 225,227

Artemisinic acid (continued) biosynthesis, 216 isolation, 220 methyl ester, 213, 215 variation in A. annua, 184 Artemisinin, 10, 11, 23-25, 30, 35, 51, 59, 60, 62,153,160, 169-176, 178-181, 183,187, 211-223, 252,256 analogues, 220-237 11-aza analogues, 228 bioavailability, 272, 273 biosynthesis, 11, 35, 60, 181, 199, 216-218 carba-analogues, 227, 232, 263 crystallisation, 218 denaturation, 185 derivatives, 220-237 drug interactions, 275, 276, 302 effect on malaria transmission, 279 ELISA assay, 64 genetics, 197-209 gas chromatography, 63-64 haem adducts, 265 HPLC, 62-63 isolation, 218

malaria parasite resistance, 252, 276-280

mechanism of action, 232, 249-268 metabolism and pharmacokinetics,

272-276 microbial transformation, 255,

228-230 9/3-pentyl analogues, 226, 227 reproductive toxicity, 268, 298, 299 seco-derivatives, 232 structure, 212 synthesis, 160, 212, 220 toxicity, 268-272, 298 Artemisinin and derivatives adverse effects, 299, 318 assay techniques, 314 clinical trials, 291-296 clinical use, 289-303 effect on malaria transmission, 318 formulations, 291, 310 guidelines for use, 299-303 malaria prophylaxis, 302, 309 regulation of quality/use, 309-321 research needed, 317

use in children, 298 use in pregnancy, 298, 302, 315, 318, 320, 321 Artemisinin B, 11 Artemisinin G, 255 Artemisinine, 150 Artemisinol, 214, 215 Artemisitene, 35, 63, 64, 213, 214, 218, 225, 271 epoxides, 272 Artemisitin, 56 Artemisyl-oil type, 17 Artemixifolin, 111 Artemone, 128-130, 132 Artemorin, 111, 122 Artesunate, 11, 59, 237, 251, 252, 253, 257, 258, 268, 274, 277, 279 antimalarial use, 290-297, 301, 303,

310,314,319, 320 bioavailability, 273 Artesunic acid, see Artesunate /3-Artesunic acid, 221, 222 Arthritis, 81,91

3-Aryl, 1, 2, 4-trioxanes, 233, 235 Asarum sieboldii, 156 Ascaridole, ix, 16, 20 Ascorbic acid, 259 Ash, 51

acid insoluble, 53 sulphated, 53 Aspergillus flavus, 24 nidulans, 9 niger, 9, 229 Assenzio, 79 Assistant herb, 153

Asteraceae, 1, 101, 150, 159, 161, 197 Chinese, 14 distibution, 1 ethnobotany, 12 floral structure, 1 geological history, 8 number of species, 4 paleobotany, 12 therapeutic uses, 9 tribes, 2 Astereae, 4 Asteroideae, 2, 4 Astragalin, 24

Ataxia, 299 a-Atiantone, 18 Atovaquone, 277 Atractylodes macrocephala, 156 Auditory systems, 269, 299 Autoradiography, 252 Axillarin, 27, 214 11-Aza-artemisinins, 228 Azulene, 17, 22

Bacillus subtilis, 9, 93,111

Badiane, 81

Balchanin, 22

Banderol gan tea, 14

Basin big sagebrush, 38

Baurenol, 214

Beauresia sulfurescens, 229

Beetle and Wyoming big sagebrush, 38

Ben Cao Gang Mu, 149

Benflumatol, 277, 291, 297, 300, 301, see also Lumefantrine (E)-a-Bergamotol, 21 Bicycloelemene, 128 Bicyclogermacrene, 128, 130, 131 Big sagebrush, 38 Bile, 274, 275

Bile flow, to stimulate, see Choleretic Bioavailability, 297

of artemisinin derivatives, 272-274 of tetraoxanes, 236 Biosynthesis, 31

of aesculetin, 34-36 of artemisinin, 35, 181, 199, 216-218 of camphor, 34 of coumarins, 34, 35 of flavonoids, 35, 37 of 3-thujone, 34 a-Bisabolol, 21 Bisabolol oxide, 21, 55 Bis- (1 -hy droxy-2-methylpropyl )-phthalate, 216

Bis-norcadinanes, 214 Bitter, 55,107,109, 114 Bitter substances, 11, 56, 59, 65, 70, 81 Bitter value, 51, 54, 57, 58, 72 Black market, 313, 316 Blood, 152-154, 266 Borneol, 15, 16, 17, 19, 33, 34, 60, 69, 101,102, 111, 128,141,142, 212

Bornyl, acetate, 65, 70, 141 pyrophosphate, 33, 34 Boron, 174, 175 Brain stem, 269, 299 Breech presentation, 156 Brevibacterium linens, 9 Broad-sense heritability, 124, 199-202 5-Bromouracil, 180 Bronchitis, 110

C-4 radicals, 233 Cabbage webworm, 9 Caco-2 cells, 273 Cadinane, 10, 18, 33, 212, 225

4, 5-seco-, 214, 225, 227 Cadinanolide, 22, 23 Cadin-4, 7,(ll)-dien-12-al, 214, 215 Cadin-4,(15), ll-dien-9-one, 214, 225 Cadinene, 70, 128 a-, 212 S-, 128 T, 130 Cadinol, a-, 21

T-, 128, 130 Cadinolide, 217 Cajaput oil, 69 Calcium, 174

ammonium nitrate, 173 carbonate, 174-175 hydroxide, 174 Calenduleae, 4 Callus culture, 30, 93 Camellia, 14 Camphane, 85

Camphor, 15,16-18, 20, 22, 30, 60, 69, 71, 83, 84, 85, 101, 102, 111, 114, 141, 142,211 biosynthesis, 33, 34 Candida albicans, 95 Capillarisin, 154 Capillartemisins A and B, 154 Capillene, 70 Capillin, 9, 70 Capillone, 70 Carapax trionycis, 153

Carba-analogues, of artemisinin, 227, 232, 263

Carbon-centred radicals, 259

Cardiotoxicity, 268, 269, 276, 299, 300

Cardueae, 1, 4

Carlina acaulis, 9

Carminative, 69, 80

Carotinoids, 71

Carvacrol, 15,16, 18, 21, 22, 60, 66 iraras-Carveol, 65 Carvone, 20, 65, 70 Caryophyllene, 18, 60, 128 ß-, 17, 20, 30, 70, 84, 142 epoxide, 70 oxide, 21, 60, 142 Casticin, 24, 27, 54, 214, 216 Catalase, 250, 266 Catechol tannins, 32 Caterpillars, 179 a-Cedrene, 65 Cell suspension cultures, 30 Centaureidin, 54 Cerastes cerastes, 103 Cerebellar dysfunction, 268 Cerebral malaria, 11, 59, 150, 222, 249,

270, 289, 298, 303 CGP56697, 301 Chalcone, 35

isomerase, 35 synthase, 35 Chamazulene, 17, 55 Chamomilla, 9 Channel tropism, 151 Chelators, 224, 231, 252, 267, 268, 303 Chenopodium oil, x Chemical races, 68 Chemotaxonomy, 14 Chemotypes, 60, 101 Cherokee rosehip, 152 Chinese Artemisia, 154-156 Chinese date, 152 Chinese medicine, 149-157 Chiron, 91 Chloramben, 178 Chlormquat, 179

Chloroquine, 150, 222, 232, 234, 249, 250, 252, 277, 278, 289, 292, 293, 302, 309-311, 317 Choleretic, 9, 54, 70, 109,145, 154, 155

Chromatography, 141, 218, 220, 265 HPLC, 314

thin layer, 265, 271, 314 Chromenes, 24 Chromosome number, 124 Chrysantheminae, 5 Chrysanthemum, 5, 8 Chrysanthenol, 84, 101, 102 Chrysanthenyl acetate, 55, 101, 102

trans-, 18, 19, 22 Chrysartemin,

B, 111 Chrysoeriol, 214 Chrysoplenetin, 24, 214 Chrysoplenol D, 214 Chrysperiol, 27 Cichorieae, 2, 4 Cineole, 66, 69, 70, 142 1, 4-Cineole, 17

1, 8-Cineole, 13, 15, 16, 18, 20, 22, 30, 60, 67, 70, 71, 83, 84, 85, 101 102, 128, 141, 142,211,212 Cinnamic acid, 125, 128

trans-, 34-36 Cinnamomum cassia, 151 Cinnamon bark, 151, 156 Cinnamyl cinnamate, 128, 130 Cirsilineol, 26, 27, 214 Cirsiliol, 214 Cirsimaritin, 26, 27, 214 Cirsineol, 24

Cladosporium cucumerinumn, 111 Clearance, of malaria parasites, 290-292,

297, 303 Clindamycin, 278

Clinical trials, 153, 154, 291-296, 315

Clones, 30,163,183, 199-207

Clonogenic assay, 271

Clostridium sporogenes, 94

Cluster analysis, 22

Cnicus benedictus, 11

Co-artemether, 291, 295, 296, 297, 301

Codex Cruz Badiano, 108, 109, 114

Codex Florentino, 108, 109, 114

Colds, 81, 152

Colic. 109, 110, 114

Collar rot, 125

Coma, 317

Combination therapy, 277, 279, 290, 292,

293, 301, 303, 309, 310, 317-319 Comparative molecular field analysis, 224 Complement, 10 Compliance, 317

Asteraceae Coniferin, 24

Constant Spring erythrocytes, 278

Constipation, 109, 110

Contact dermatitis, 145

Continuous variation, 198

a-Copaene, 20

Copper, 174, 175

Coptis chinensis, 151

Coptis root, 151

Cortex, 271

Cortex Cinnamon, 156

Cortex Moutan, 153

Cosmetics, 81

Costunolide, 10, 22

Cough, 155

p-Coumaric acid, 35, 36, 37, 85 Coumarins, 26-28, 30, 54, 70, 71, 85, 144, 154,216 biosynthesis, 34, 35 Counterfeit drugs, 313, 316 Cremanthodium, 14 Crocidolotnia binotalis, 9 Cross resistance, 298 Crossess, 202-206 Crossostepbium, 3, 5 Cross-resistance, 276 Cruciferae, 93

Crude extract production, 189 Cuauhyayahuae, 109 /3-Cubebene, 128, 142 Culex pipiens, 9 Culinary, 91, 93, 94 Cultivation, 159-195, 280 Cuminaldehyde, 20 Cyanogenic glycosides, 154 Cyclic peroxy ketals, 234, 236, 237 Cyclic voltammetry, 252, 253 Cycloguanil, 303 Cycocel, 121, 18

Cynara, 9 Cynaroideae, 2 Cysteine, 267 Cytoadherence, 275, 297 Cytochrome, 250 C, 266 oxidase, 252 P450, 261

P450 isozymes, 275, 276 Cytokines, 249 Cytoprotective, 10 Cytoskeleton, 270 Cytostatic, 24

Cytotoxicity, 10, 114, 233, 270-272

Dandruff, 109 Daphnetin, 27 Davana, 119-137

cultivation, 120-123 Davana ether, 125, 128, 130-232 Davana furan, 130, 132 Davana oil, 119-137 distillation, 123 fragrance, 130 GC profile, 131

physicochemical properties, 126-127 Davanafurans, 125, 128 Davanic acid, 128 Davanol, 128

isomer, 130 Davanone, 17, 124, 125, 129-132 alio-, 128 cis-, 125, 128 Davanyl acetate, 128 DDT, 159 Debility, 109 «s-Decalin, 212 Dehydro-a-linalool, 128 6, 7-Dehydroartemisinic acid, 214, 215 11, 12-Dehydrodihydroartemisinin, 223,

224, 230 Dehydrofalcari-3, 8-diol, 28 Dehydroleucodine, 10 Dehydromatricaria ester, 144 Dendranthema, 5

Deoxoartemisinin, 225, 226, 227, 251, 258 derivatives, 226, 227 microbial metabolites, 255 10-Deoxo-13-carba-artemisin, 227

Deoxodeoxyartemisinin, 225, 258 Deoxyarteannuin B, 212, 213

epi-, 212, 213 Deoxyarteether, 270

11 -epi-, 221,222 Deoxyartemisinin, 213, 214, 225, 229, 250,

251,253-256, 271 Deoxydihydroartemisinin, 221, 222, 229, 253, 275 11 -epi-, 229, 230 Dermatitis, 145 Desferoxamine, 252 B, 303

Desoxyarteether, 221, 270 Diabetes, 81, 99, 103 Diagnosis, in TCM, 152 Diana, 79 Dianthus, 156 Diaphoretic, 55, 145 Diarrhoea, 152 Diethyl dithiocarbamate, 268 Difference method, 200 Digestive, 68, 91 Digestive disorders, 80, 81 Dihydroargolide, 23 Dihydroartemisinic acid, 60, 225, 218, 219

11, R(-)-Dihydroartemisinic acid, 214, 215 Dihydroartemisinin, 59, 63, 221, 251, 257, 262, 266-269, 271-278, 291, 297, 301, 314,317,319, 320 derivatives, 220-226 dimers, 271, 272 glucuronides, 275 2, 3-Dihydro-l, 8-cineole, 20 Dihydro-e/?/-deoxyarteannuin B, 212, 213 Dihydrofurano- sesquiterpenes, 125 Dihydrofurans, 129 Dihydrokaempferol, 3 7 Dihydromyricetin, 37 Dihydronerolidol derivative, 129 Dihydroquercetin, 37 Dihydrorhodamine 123, 267 Dihydrorosefurans, 125, 129, 132 la, 3a-Dihydroxyarbusculin B, 11 Dihydroxycadinanolide, 213, 214, 217 1/3, 6/3-Dihydroxy-4(14)-eudesmene, 23 6 a, 8a-Dihydroxyisocostic acid methyl ester, 23

2, 2-Dihydroxy, 6-methoxychromone, 216

5, 3'Dihydroxy-3, 6, 7, 5'-tetramethoxyflavone, 214

3, 5~Dihydroxy-6, 7, 3', 4'-tetramethoxyflavone, 214

Dimeric guainolides, 22

6, 7-Dimethoxycoumarin, 10 Dimethylallylpyrophosphate, 33

7,-y-Dimethylbutenolide, 128 Dimethylsulphoxide, 180

2, 29-Dimethyltriacontane, 216 Dioscorides, 13 Diquat, 180

Diseases, of A. annua, 178-179 Dispiro-1, 2, 4, 5-tetraoxane, 236, 237 Dissolution profile, 314 Distillation, 123

Distribution, of artemisinin and derivatives,

272 Diterpenes, 24 Diuretic, 68, 145, 154 Dizziness, 110 DNA, 267 Douglanin, 22 Douglanine, 111, 112 Doxorubicin, 259

Doxycycline, 289, 290, 294, 297, 317 Dracunculus, 6, 7, 27 Dropsy, 109

Drug interactions, 275, 276, 292, 302 Drug regulations, 311 Drug resistance, 249, 252, 268, 273, 275-280, 289, 292, 297-302, 317 Drug-haem adducts, 265 Drug-protein adducts, 266 Drying, 188, 189 Dysentery, 110

Dysmenorrhoea, 71, 110, 145 Dyspepsia, 145

Earache, 110 Ecology, 36, 37 Ehrlich ascites cells, 271 Electroantennograms, 94 Electrochemical reduction, 62 Electron microscopy, 270 Electron spin resonance, 259 /3-Elemene, 70 Elemicin, 91, 92

Elemol, 65

Elimicine, 68

ELISA assay, 64

Embryotoxicity, 268, 298, 299

Emperor herb, 153

ENI 9 cells, 271

Endo bornyl acetate, 86

Entamoeba histolytica, 111

Enteritis, 99, 101

Environment, effect on artimisinin content, 200 management of, 36 Epilepsy, 145 Epistaxis, 65

Epoxidation, 260, 261, 263 3, 4-Epoxy-a//o-da van ones, 129 Epoxyartemisinic acid, 214, 215 ds-Epoxycymene, 55 3, 4-Epoxy-2-hydroxy-isodavanone, 129 a-Epoxyludalbin, 111 c/s-Epoxy-ocimene, 20 Eriodyctyol, 143, 144 A4, 15-Erivanin, 100

Erythrocytes, 265, 267, 268, 278, 297, see also Red blood cells ghosts, 266 Erythromycin, 276

Escherichia coli, 9, 24, 94, 101, 111, 267 Esculetin, 28, 85

biosynthesis, 34-36 Esculin, 27, 85 Essential drugs, 313

Essential oil, 9, 31, 33, 51, 60, 65, 68, 70, 71, 82, 85, 86, 101, 154 accumulation, 30 isolation, 52, 123 production, 119, 185 Estafiate, 107, 114 Estafiatin, 110, 112 Estragole, 17, 68, 92, 93 Ethnobotany, 108-109 Ethyl cinnamate, 130-132 Ethyl davanate, 128 N-Ethylmaleimide, 266 Eudesmane, acids, 142,143 dialcohol, 142, 143 diols, 23

Eudesmanolides, 7, 23, 66, 100, 111

seco-, 24, 25 /3-Eudesmol, 17, 128, 130 Eudesmonic acid, 23 Eugenol, 18, 128 Eupatilin, 27, 111, 113 Eupatorieae, 4 Eupatorin, 214 Evil spirits, 14 Evil, to ward off, 144 Extraction, of artemisinin, 218

Falciparum malaria, 289, 300, 301, 309, 310, see also Malaria and Plasmodium falciparum Fansidar, 293 Farnesene, a-, 212 trans-ß-, 70 Farnesol, 128, 130, 131 Farnesyl pyrophosphate, 33, 35, 199, 216 Febrifuge, 160 Feet, to protect, 144 Felon herb, 139 a-Fenchene, 19, 86 Fenchone, 85 Fenchyl alcohol, 128 Fenerol, 24 Fennel, 81

Ferriprotoporphyrin IX, 249 Ferrous, ammonium sulphate, 271 bromide, 257, 258, 262, 264 chloride, 257, 258 sulphate, 257, 259, 260, 267, 271 Fertiliser, 172, 173 Ferulic acid, 85

Fibrosarcoma, 271 Five elements, 151 Flatulence, 91 Flavanols, 27, 54

glycosides, 71, 101 methylated, 26, 27 Flavanones, 27 Flavones, 24, 27, 154 glycosides, 101 methylated, 27

Flavonoids, 7, 8, 24, 26, 27, 31, 56, 65, 70, 71, 82,101, 144,154,160,214 biosynthesis, 35, 37 methylated, 101 Flavour, 12, 55, 81, 133, 139,159 Flores Cinae, 66 Flos Caryophylli, 156 Flow cytometry, 267 Fluazifol, 178

Fluorescein isothiocyanate, 267 Foetal resorption, 298, 299 Folium Artemisiae Argyi, 65 Folium Mori, 153 Forage harvesting, 187 Formulation, 318 Fragrance, 81, 82, 119 Francisco Hernandez, 109 Frankinsense, 156 Fraxetin, 27

Fray Bernadino de Sahagun, 109 Free radicals, 233, 250, 252, 255-259, 264, 271

scavenging of, 10, 259 French tarragon, 12, 91-93, 159 Friedelan-3/3-ol, 214 Friedelin, 214 Fright, 110 Frigins A, B and C, 23 Fungal infection, 179 Furan, 128

Furano-nor-diterpenoid, 129, 130 10a-(2'Furyl)-10-deoxoartemisinin, 226,

227 Fusarium, oxysporum, 125 solani, 9

GA3, 179

Gametocytes, 232, 249, 278, 318 Garlands, 119, 133

Gas chromatography, 52, 63-64, 130, 141, see also GC-MS Gastric lesion formation, 10 Gastrointestinal disorders, 107, 108, 110, 114

Gastroprotective, 103 GC-MS, 52, 141,211 Ge Hong, 160 Gel electrophoresis, 270

Genepi, 12

group, 30 Genetic, improvement, 197, 206 markers, 317 variability, 124, 197 Genetics, 197-207, 278 Genkwanin, 24 Geno toxicity, 93 Gentiana lutea, 164 Geraniol, 125, 128-130, 212 Geranyl, acetate, 130 linalool, 130 pyrophosphate, 33, 34 Germacradiene, 22 Germacranes, 18 lactones, 23 Germacranolides, 22, 23, 25, 100, 101, 129 Germacrene D, 17, 128, 211, 212 Germplasm, 162, 163 Gibberelic acid, 121 Ginger, 151, 156

Glandular hairs/trichomes, 31, 32, 92, 181, 199

Glial cells, 269 Glucuronides, 275 Glutathione, 253 Glycoprotein, 145 Gnaphalieae, 4

Good manufacturing practice, 310, 311,

313,318 Gout, 91 Gracilin, 23, 25 Grapefruit juice, 276 Green, ginger, 139 herb, 159 Grob fragmentation, 217 Growth, inhibition, 178 regulators, 179, 180, 186 Guaianolides, 7, 23, 55

lacones, 11 Guaiene, 17

a-, 15,211 Guide herb, 153 a-Gurjunene, 128 Gut toxicity, 299

Gynaecological problems, see Menstrual disorders Gypsy's tobacco, 144

Haem, 232, 233, 249-254, 260, 262, 264-267,270-273, 279 oxygenase, 250 polymerase, 250 Haematin, 253 Haemin, 250 Haemoglobin, 250, 266 A, 278

degradation products, 266 digestion, 249, 252, 253 H, 278 Haemolytic, 103 Haemoproteins, 250, 266 Haemoptysis, 65 Haemorrhoids, 149 Haemostatic, 65

Haemozoin, 249, 251, 252, 265, 270

Hairy roots, 85

Halofantrine, 276-279, 289

Hanphyllin, 23

Harvesting, 185-188

Headache, 109,110

Heart problems, 109,110

Heat syndromes, 109,149,152,153

HeLa cells, 271

Helenanolide, 23

Helenieae, 2, 4

Heliantheae, 4

Helianthus annuus, 1

Helicotylenchus dihystera, 82

Heme, see Haem

Hepatitis, 154

Hepatoprotective, 82

Hepatotoxicity, 154

Herb properties, 151

Herba,

Abrotani, 54 Absinthii, 52, 55 Artemisiae, 59, 71 Artemisiae Annuae, 153 Artemisiae scopariae, 70 Asari, 156 Herbalbin, 23,25,100 Herbicides, 177

Heritability, of artemisinin content, 197-207

Herniarin, 28

Hexamethyl Dewar benzene, 260, 262 Hexane, 218 Hiccups, 91

High performance liquid chromatography, 62, 68,265, 266,271,314 +mass spectrometry, 63, 275 High valence iron, 259-263 /3-Himachalene, 18 Hippocrates, 13 Hispidulin, 27 Histidine rich protein, 265 Historia Natural de Nueva Espana, 109 Holotransferrin, 271 Homodeoxyartemisinin, 227 Homoditerpene peroxides, 18, 82 Horse radish peroxidase, 261 HPLC, 62, 68, 265, 266, 271, 314 HPLC-MS, 63

Human granulocyte stimulating factor, 267 Humulus lupulus, 139 Hybrids, 163, 202-206 Hydrocarbones, 66, 128 1, 5-Hydrogen abstraction, 234 Hydroperoxyeudesmanolides, 32 2-Hydroperoxy-isodavanone, 129 Hydroponic culture, 173 p-Hydroxyacetophenone, 28 4-(Hydroxyalkyl)-trioxanes, 233 9/3-Hydroxyanhydrodihydroartemisinin, 224, 230

3a-Hydroxyarteether, 221, 229 9/3-Hydroxyarteether, 229, 231 Hydroxyarteether glucuronides, 275 p-Hydroxybenzoic acid, 85 Hydroxycoumarins, 27 Hydroxydavana ketone, 128 Hydroxydavanone, 128

trans-, 125, 129 Hydroxy-a//o-davanones, 129 3a-

Hydroxydeoxyanhydrodihydroartemisinin, 221,231 3a-Hydroxydeoxyartemisinin, 229 4a-Hydroxydeoxyartemisinin, 256, 261 3a-Hy droxydeoxydihy droartemisinin, 229

Hydroxydihydroartemisinin, 275

glucuronide, 275 Hydroxydihydrorosefuran, 125, 129, 132 7-Hydroxy-é, 8-dimethoxycoumarin, 216 8a-Hydroxy, 4a, 5a-epoxytaurin, 100 5-Hydroxyeudesmanolides, 23 2-Hydroxyisodavanone, 129-132 5a-HydroxyisopterocarpoIone, 23 14-Hydroxymethylarteether, 229, 231 12-(3'-Hydroxy, w-propyl)-deoxoartemisinins, 226, 227

4-Hydroxy-O-coumaryl glycoside, 35, 36 2-Hydroxy-p-coumarate, 35, 36 Hydroxypelenolide, 59 3a-Hydroxyreynosin, 111 a-Hydroxysantonin, 66, 214, 215

1-Hydroxytetralin, 260

5-Hydroxy-3, 6, 7, 4'-tetramethylflavone, 214

Hydroxytrioxanes, 261 Hymenopappus, 2 Hymenothrix, 2 Hypericum perforatum, 139 Hypertension, 103 Hypnozoites, 302 Hypoglycaemia, 298 Hypoglycaemic, 10, 103, 131 Hypolipidaemic, 10, 103 Hyssop, 81

Imidazole, 258 Immunomodulatory, 10 Infections, 110 Infectious hepatitis, 70 Infertility, 65 Inflammation, 110, 154 Injury, 154 Insect, control, 14, 94 repellant, 133, 139,145, 159 Insecticide, 9,12,13, 82, 149 Intestinal, disturbances, 91, 99, 101, 103 permeability, 273 Inula, 14 Inuleae, 4 Invertase, 34

Iodoacetamide, 266, 267, 271

chelator, 224, 231, 252, 267, 268, 303 -oxo species, 233 Irregular monoterpenes, 142 Irrigation, 179 Irritant, 114 Isoannulide, 213, 214 Isoartemisia ketone, 70 Isoborneol, 65, 128 3-Isobutylcadin-4-en-ll-ol, 214, 215 Isodavanone, 128 inms-Isoelemicin, 68 A4, 5-Isoerivanin, 100 Isoeugenol, 70 Isofraxetin, 27

Isofraxidin, 26, 28, 54, 55,143,144 Isofraxidine, 55, Isokampferide, 24 Isophytol, 130 Isopinocamphone, 16, 20 Isoprene, 33 Isoquercitrin, 24 Isorhamnetin, 24, 26, 142 -3-glucoside, 82 -5-glycoside, 27 Isoschaftoside, 27 Isoscopoletin, 28 Isovitexin, 27

Ito multilayer separator, 220 Iztauyatl, 107, 109, 114

Jaceosidin, 26, 27, 111, 113 Jasmine, 130 Jaundice, 69, 81, 154 Jonone, 111 Junceum, 8

Kaempferol, 24, 26, 214 -3-O-glucoside, 216 Karyotype, 124 Ketoconazole, 276 Kidney, 152

Klebsiella pneumoniae, 9, 94 Kumatakenin, 27

Labiatae, 93 Lactuca, 1 Lactuceae, 4

Lanostane, 24 Larvicidal, 9, 12 Lavandulyl, 15, 16 Lavender, lactol, 128 lactone, 128 LCMS, 63, 275 Leaf stripping, 186 Leaf wax, 27 Ledene, 128

Leiurus quinquesteiartus, 103

Leptinella, 5

Lettuce, 1

Leucampyx, 1

Leucanthemum, 5

Leucodin derivative, 23, 25

Leukaemia cells, 271

Liabeae, 4

Lice, 109

Licensing, 311

Lignans, 82

Ligularia, 14

Ligustrin derivative, 23, 25 Lilac, alcohols, 125, 128 aldehydes, 125, 128 Lime, 174 Limestone, 174

Limonene, 15, 16, 17, 19, 68, 84, 212 Linalool, 10, 19, 71,125,128,130, 131

oxide, 125,128 /3-Linalool oxide, 20 Linalyl acetate, 17 Lipids, 216

peroxidation, 259, 260 Lipophilicity, 275 Liqueurs, 11, 81 Liver, 152, 249, 273 disorders, 154 protective, 69 Log P values, 228, 275 Logochilus inebrians, 141 Losna, 79 Lucenin-2, 27 Ludalbin, 111, 113 Ludovicin A, 111, 113 Ludovicin B, 23, 111, 113 Ludovicin C, 111, 113

Lumefantrine, 277, 291, 292, 295, 296,

297, 300, 301, 319 Luteolin, 24, 26, 27,143, 144, 214 -3'-glycoside, 27 -7-methyl ether, 24 -7-O-glucoside, 216 Lycium barbarum, 152 Lyratol, 101, 102 jß-Maaliene, 128

Macaca mullata, 269 Magic, 13 Magnesium, 174

Malaria, 59, 150,152, 153, 159, 233, 234, 249, 266, 267, 272, 274, 289 chloroquine resistant, 150 clearance of parasites, 290-292, 297, 303

control programme, 315

drug resistance, 249, 252, 276-280,

289, 292, 297-302, 317, 319 in India, 159 life cycle, 249

267, 268, 279 pigment, 250 prophylaxis, 149 transmission, 278, 289, 318 treatment, 289-303, 319-321 Maleic hydrazide, 180 Manganese, 175, 260, 265 Marketing of artemisinin and derivatives,

311, 312 Marrubium vulgare, 141 Mass spectrometry, 52, 63, 141, 266 Massage, 151 Matafolin, 111 Matricarin, 23 Matricin, 58 Mawangdui, 149 2MC28, 28

Mechanism of action, of artemisinin, 232 Mefloquine, 274, 276-279, 289, 290, 292, 294, 295, 296, 297, 300, 301-303, 309, 319

Meloidogyne incognata, 82, 125 Menstrual disorders, 54, 55, 65, 68, 71,

109,110,145,154,155 Mercaptoethanol, 266

Meront, 274 Merozoites, 249, 273 Mesantilantin A, 23, 25 Metabolie acidosis, 272 Metabolism, 225

of artemisinin and derivatives, 272-276 Methaemoglobin, 250 12j8-Methoxy-3-aryltroxanes, 233, 235 6-Methoxy, 7-hydroxycoumarin, 143, 144

6-Methoxykaempferol, 216 Methoxylated flavones, 278 6-Methoxyluteolin methyl esters, 27 6-Methoxy-7, 8-methylenedioxycoumarin, 144

6-Methoxyquercetin, 27 Methyl cinnamates, 130, 132 Methyl eugenol, 70, 93, 128 Methyl isoeugenol, 128 2'-(5'-Methyl)-artemisinin, 227 2-Methyl-2-nitropropane, 259 Methylated, flavones, 27 flavonoids, 101 flavonols, 26, 27 Methylchavicol, 17, 68, 69, 91, 92, 93 Methyl-esculetin, 28 Methylphenylsulphide, 260 2'-(N-Methylpyrole)-artemisinin, 227 2-Methyltricosa-8-one-23-ol, 215 Mevalonate, 33 Mevalonic acid, 199, 216 Miconazole, 259 Microbial, degradation, 255 metabolism, 275

transformation of artemisinin and derivatives, 228-230 Micrococcus luteus, 111 Micropropagation, 16, 28, 30, 125, 160 Minister herb, 153 Mint sulphide, 128 Mitochondria, 252, 270 Mixed function mono-oxygenase, 33, 261 Model prescribing information, 316, 319 Molecular modelling, 253, 254 Molt-4 lymphoblastoid cells, 271 Mono-oxygenases, 33, 261

Monoterpenes, 70, 141, 211 biosynthesis, 33 irregular, 15 Moms alba leaf, 153 Mosquito, 159, 249, 273, 279, 289 Moth repellent, 133, 139 Mother of herbs, 144 Moxa, 154

wool, 154 Moxibustion, 65, 154, 156 MTT, 270, 271 Mugger, 139 Mugweed, 139 Mugwood, 139

Mugwort, 12, 71, 139,144,145, 154,159 Multi-drug resistance, 249, 276, 278, 289,

298-302, 309-311, 313, 316 Mutagenicity, 298 Mutations, 277 Mutisiae, 4

a-Myrcene hydroperoxide, 212

/3-Myrcene hydroperoxide, 212

Myricetin, 37

Myrrh, 156

Myrtenal, 20

Myrtenol, 19

Napropamide, 177 Naringenin, 35, 37 Narrow-sense heritability, 202-206 Nausea, 91, 145 NB2a cells, 269, 270 Nematocide, 81 Neochlorogenic acid, 85 Neoisoshaftoside, 27 Neoshaftoside, 27 Nepetin, 27

Nerol, 17, 82,125,129,212 Nerolidol, 130

trans-, 18, 20, 22 Nervine, 145 Neryl, butyrate, 86 isovalerate, 86 Neurite outgrowths, 269, 270 Neuroblastoma cells, 269, 270, 271 Neuronal cells, 252, 269, 271

Neurotoxicity, 56, 70, 85, 227, 268-271,

279,299, 300,318 Neutrophil, 267, 274 Nissl substance, 268 Nitrogen, 172-174, 179 Nitrosin, 23, 25 Nocardia corallina, 229 ra-Nonacosane, 216 Nonacosanol, 216

5-Nonadecylresorcinol-3-0-methyl ether, 216

5-Nor-4, 5-seco-artemisinin, 232, 234 Norannuic acid, 214, 2IS Nordavana ether, 128 Nordavanone, 128, 130 Nor-diterpenoid ester, 132 Nucleus, ruber, 269 trapezoideus, 269 Nutrients, 172-174

Ocimene, 9, 91 fir, 92 alio-, 212 cis-, 68 trans-, 68 trans-a-, 212 Octacosanol, 216 Oestrogenic activity, 144 Oleanolic acid, 214 Oleoresins, 31, 33 Oleum Absinthii, 11 Olibanum, 156 Oligosaccharides, 82 Oligosporineae, 5 Organogenesis, 125 Ornamental, 159 Orobanche cernua, 179 1-Oxo-cryptomeridiol, 23, 25 8-Oxo-nerolidol, 128

Paeonia suffruticosa, 153, 160

Pain, 114, 154

Papaver somniferum, 180

Paralysis, 109

Paraquat, 180

Parasites, see under Malaria

Parishin B, 22

Parishin C, 23

Patient compliance, 315 Patuletin, 214

-3-glucoside, 82 -3-O-glucoside, 216 -5-glycoside, 27 Pectolinarigenin, 27 Pelanolides, 56, 59 Pelin, 79 Penduletin, 214 Pénicillium, chrysogenum, 229 italicum, 9 oxalicum, 111 »-Pentane, 216

9/3-Pentyl-analogues of artemisinin, 226, 227

Pentzia globifera, 4

Pericarpium Xanthoxyli, 156 Permeability, intestinal, 273 Peroxidase, 34, 265 Peroxides, ix, 280 Persea gratissima, 92 Pfmdr 1 gene, 277 P-glycoprotein, 277 Phagocytosis, 267

Pharmacokinetics, of artemisinin and derivatives, 272-276 a-Phellandrene, 9, 65 /3-Phellandrene, 84 Phenolase, 34 Phenolic, acids, 85 compounds, 216 glycosides, 24 Phenylalanine, 34-36

ammonia lyase, 35 Phlegm, 109 Phospholiopase, 266 Phosphorus, 172-174 Phytene-1, 2-diol, 24 Phytol, 24, 130 Phytyl acetate, 130 Pinene, 15, 18, 60, 69

a-, 17, 19, 22, 70, 82, 83, 84, 212 ß-, 16, 17, 19, 22, 70, 86, 91, 92, 212

Pinocarvenone, 212

Pinocarveol, 19, 101, 212 Piperitone, 16

oil type, 17 Plant breeding, 161 Plasma, 266, 272-274 Plasmodium, berghei, 11, 82, 150,153, 225, 232,

233, 252, 276-278, 302 cynomolgi, 279

falciparum, 11, 59, 82, 99, 150, 153, 159, 221-228, 230, 249, 252, 259, 262, 265, 267, 270, 276, 278, 289, 298, 302, 309, 318 malariae, 159, 249, 289, 300, 302 ovale, 159, 249, 289, 300, 302 resistance, 276-280, 298-302, 317 vinckei, 225

300, 302 yoelii, 276-278, 298 Pleurotus ostreatus, 9 Plucheeae, 4

Pneumocystis carinii, 276 Poisoning, 145 Polish tarragon, 92 Pollen, 145, 153

Polysaccharides, 33

Ponticapoxide, 216

Porphyria, 81

Porphyrin, 254, 260, 265

Post-marketing survillance, 309, 314, 315

Potassium, 172-174

Pregnancy, 156, 302, 315, 318, 320, 321 Primaquine, 278, 302 Proazulenes, 22 Product licence, 312, 313 Properties of herbs, 151 Prophylaxis of malaria, 302, 309 12/3-Propyldeoxoartemisinin, 226, 227 Prostaglandin, 255

Protein, 251, 259, 264-267, 270, 271 Proteus, 24

vulgaris, 9 Protoplast, 30

Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 24, 94 Pseudosantonin, 69 Psilostachyin, 71, 142, 143

C, 71, 142, 143 Psychoactive, 13 Puccinia dracunculina, 95 Pyrimethamine, 289, 292, 302, 303, 309,

310,317 Pyronaridine, 278, 317

Qing Hao, 10, 59, 99, 149,150, 159 Qing Hao Bie Jia Tang, 152 Qinghao acid, 160, 163, 184 Qinghaosu, 10, 59, 150, 159, 212, 289,

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