References

1 Yki-Järvinen H: The insulin resistance syndrome; in DeFronzo RA, Keen H, Ferrannini E, Zim-met P (eds): International Textbook of Diabetes. Chichester, Wiley, 2004, pp 359-373.

2 Lillioja S, Mott DM, Spraul M, Ferraro R, Foley JE, Ravussin E, Knowler WC, Bennett PH, Bog-ardus C: Insulin resistance and insulin secretory dysfunction as precursors of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 1993;329:1988-1992.

3 Lakka HM, Laaksonen DE, Lakka TA, Niskanen LK, Kumpusalo E, Tuomilehto J, Salonen JT: The metabolic syndrome and total and cardiovascular disease mortality in middle-aged men. JAMA 2002;288:2709-2716.

4 McNeill AM, Rosamond WD, Girman CJ, Golden SH, Schmidt MI, East HE, Ballantyne CM, Heiss G: The metabolic syndrome and 11-year risk of incident cardiovascular disease in the atherosclerosis risk in communities study. Diabetes Care 2005; 28:385-390.

5 Wilkinson IB, Prasad K, Hall IR, Thomas A, MacCallum H, Webb DJ, Frenneaux MP, Cockcroft JR: Increased central pulse pressure and augmentation index in subjects with hypercholesterol-emia. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002;39:1005-1011.

6 Vlachopoulos C, Kosmopoulou F, Panagiotakos D, Ioakeimidis N, Alexopoulos N, Pitsavos C, Stefanadis C: Smoking and caffeine have a synergistic detrimental effect on aortic stiffness and wave reflections. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004;44:1911-1917.

7 London GM, Blacher J, Pannier B, Guerin AP, Marchais SJ, Safar ME: Arterial wave reflections and survival in end-stage renal failure. Hypertension 2001;38:434-438.

8 Weber T, Auer J, O'Rourke MF, Kvas E, Lassnig E, Berent R, Eber B: Arterial stiffness, wave reflections, and the risk of coronary artery disease. Circulation 2004; 109:184-189.

9 Salomaa V, Riley W, Kark JD, Nardo C, Folsom AR: Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and fasting glucose and insulin concentrations are associated with arterial stiffness indexes - the ARIC study. Circulation 1995;91:1432-1443.

10 Sutton-Tyrrell K, Newman A, Simonsick EM, Havlik R, Pahor M, Lakatta E, Spurgeon H, Vait-kevicius P: Aortic stiffness is associated with visceral adiposity in older adults enrolled in the study of health, aging, and body composition. Hypertension 2001;38:429-433.

11 Scuteri A, Najjar SS, Muller DC, Andres R, Hougaku H, Metter EJ, Lakatta EG: Metabolic syndrome amplifies the age-associated increases in vascular thickness and stiffness. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004;43:1388-1395.

12 Westerbacka J, Leinonen E, Salonen JT, Salonen R, Hiukka A, Yki-Järvinen H, Taskinen MR: Increased augmentation of central blood pressure is associated with increases in carotid intima-media thickness in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetologia 2005;48:1654-1662.

13 Yki-Järvinen H, Utriainen T: Insulin-induced vasodilatation: physiology or pharmacology? Di-abetologia 1998;41:369-379.

14 Utriainen T, Malmström R, Mäkimattila S, Yki-Järvinen H: Methodological aspects, dose-response characteristics and causes of interindividual variation in insulin stimulation of limb blood flow in normal subjects. Diabetologia 1995;38:555-564.

15 Laakso M, Edelman SV, Brechtel G, Baron AD: Decreased effect of insulin to stimulate skeletal muscle blood flow in obese man. J Clin Invest 1990;85:1844-1882.

16 Utriainen T, Holmäng A, Björntorp P, Mäkimattila S, Sovijärvi A, Lindholm H, Yki-Järvinen H: Physical fitness, muscle morphology, and insulin-stimulated limb blood flow in normal subjects. Am J Physiol 1996;270:E905-E911.

17 Utriainen T, Mäkimattila S, Virkamäki A, Lindholm H, Sovijärvi A, Yki-Järvinen H: Physical fitness and endothelial function (nitric oxide synthesis) are independent determinants of insulin-stimulated blood flow in normal subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1996;81:4258-4263.

18 Scherrer U, Randin D, Vollenweider P, Vollenweider L, Nicod P: Nitric oxide release accounts for insulin's vascular effects in humans. J Clin Invest 1994;94:2511-2515.

19 Steinberg HO, Brechtel G, Johnson A, Fireberg N, Baron AD: Insulin-mediated skeletal muscle vasodilatation is nitric oxide dependent. A novel action of insulin to increase nitric oxide release. J Clin Invest 1994;94:1172-1179.

20 Zeng G, Quon MJ: Insulin-stimulated production of nitric oxide is inhibited by Wortmannin. Direct measurement in vascular endothelial cells. J Clin Invest 1996;98:894-898.

21 Chen YY, Messina EJ: Dilatation of isolated skeletal muscle arterioles by insulin is endothelium-dependent and nitric oxide mediated. Am J Physiol 1996;270:H2120-H2124.

22 Schroeder CAJ, Chen YL, Messina EJ: Inhibition of NO synthesis or endothelium removal reveals a vasoconstrictor effect of insulin on isolated arterioles. Am J Physiol 1999;276:H815-H820.

23 Kuboki K, Jiang ZY, Takahara N, Ha SW, Igarashi M, Yamauchi T, Feener EP, Herbert TP, Rhodes CJ, King GL: Regulation of endothelial constitutive nitric oxide synthase gene expression in endothelial cells and in vivo: a specific vascular action of insulin. Circulation 2000; 101:676-681.

24 Taddei S, Virdis A, Mattei P, Natali A, Ferrannini E, Salvetti A: Effect of insulin on acetylcholine-induced vasodilatation in normotensive subjects and patients with essential hypertension. Circulation 1995;92:2911-2918.

25 Rask-Madsen C, Ihlemann N, Krarup T, Christiansen E, Kober L, Nervil KC, Torp-Pedersen C: Insulin therapy improves insulin-stimulated endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes and ischemic heart disease. Diabetes 2001;50:2611-2618.

26 Westerbacka J, Bergholm R, Tiikkainen M, Yki-Järvinen H: Glargine and regular human insulin similarly acutely enhance endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in normal subjects. Arterio-scler Thromb Vasc Biol 2004;24:320-324.

27 Makimattila S, Mäntysaari M, Groop PH, Summanen P, Virkamäki A, Schlenzka A, Fagerudd J, Yki-Järvinen H: Hyperreactivity to nitrovasodilators in forearm vasculature is related to autonomic dysfunction in IDDM. Circulation 1997;95:618-625.

28 Anderson EA, Hoffmann RP, Balon TW, Sinkey CA, Mark AL: Hyperinsulinemia produces both sympathetic neural activation and vasodilatation in normal humans. J Clin Invest 1991;87:2246-2252.

29 Randin D, Vollenweider P, Tappy L, Jequier E, Nicod P, Scherrer U: Effects of adrenergic and cholinergic blockade on insulin-induced stimulation of calf blood flow in humans. Am J Physiol 1994;266:R809-R816.

30 Berne C, Fagius J, Pollare T, Hjemdahl P: The sympathetic response to euglycemic hyperinsu-linaemia. Diabetologia 1992;35:873-879.

31 Vollenweider P, Tappy L, Randin D, Schneiter P, Jequier E, Nicod P, Scherrer U: Differential effects of hyperinsulinemia and carbohydrate metabolism on sympathetic nerve activity and muscle blood flow in humans. J Clin Invest 1993;92:147-154.

32 Muscelli E, Emdin M, Natali A, Pratali L, Camastra S, Gastaldelli A, Baldi S, Carpeggiani C, Fer-rannini E: Autonomic and hemodynamic responses to insulin in lean and obese humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998;83:2084-2090.

33 Bergholm R, Westerbacka J, Vehkavaara S, Seppala-Lindroos A, Goto T, Yki-Jarvinen H: Insulin sensitivity regulates autonomic control of heart rate variation independent of body weight in normal subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001;86:1403-1409.

34 Paolisso G, Manzella D, Rizzo MR, Barbieri M, Varricchio G, Gambardella A, Varricchio M: Effects of insulin on the cardiac autonomic nervous system in insulin-resistant states. Clin Sci (Colch) 2000;98:129-136.

35 Westerbacka J, Wilkinson I, Cockcroft J, Utriainen T, Vehkavaara S, Yki-Jarvinen H: Diminished wave reflection in the aorta: a novel physiological action of insulin on large blood vessels. Hypertension 1999;33:1118-1122.

36 Westerbacka J, Vehkavaara S, Bergholm R, Wilkinson I, Cockcroft J, Yki-Jarvinen H: Marked resistance of the ability of insulin to decrease arterial stiffness characterizes human obesity. Diabetes 1999;48:821-827.

37 Tamminen M, Westerbacka J, Vehkavaara S, Yki-Jarvinen H: Insulin-induced decreases in aortic wave reflection and central systolic pressure are impaired in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2002;25:2314-2319.

38 Westerbacka J, Seppala-Lindroos A, Yki-Jarvinen H: Resistance to acute insulin-induced decreases in large artery stiffness accompanies the insulin resistance syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001;86:5262-5268.

39 O'Rourke MF, Gallagher DE: Pulse wave analysis. J Hypertens 1996;14:S147-S157.

40 Nichols WW, O'Rourke MF: McDonalds's Blood Flow in Arteries. Theoretical, Experimental and Clinical Principles, ED 4. London, Arnold, 1998.

41 Westerbacka J, Uosukainen A, Makimattila S, Schlenzka A, Yki-Jarvinen H: Insulin-induced decrease in large artery stiffness is impaired in uncomplicated type 1 diabetes mellitus. Hypertension 2000;35:1043-1048.

42 Tamminen MK, Westerbacka J, Vehkavaara S, Yki-Jarvinen H: Insulin therapy improves insulin actions on glucose metabolism and aortic wave reflection in type 2 diabetic patients. Eur J Clin Invest 2003;33:855-860.

43 Sandqvist M, Nyberg G, Hammarstedt A, Klintland N, Gogg S, Caidahl K, Ahren B, Smith U, Jansson PA: Low adipocyte IRS-1 protein expression is associated with an increased arterial stiffness in non-diabetic males. Atherosclerosis 2005;180:119-125.

44 Kelly RP, Gibbs HH, O'Rourke MF, Daley JE, Mang K, Morgan JJ, Avolio AP: Nitroglycerine has more favourable effects on left ventricular afterload than apparent from measurement of pressure in a peripheral artery. Eur Heart J 1990;11:138-144.

45 Yaginuma T, Avolio A, O'Rourke M, Nichols W, Morgan JJ, Roy P, Baron D, Branson J, Feneley M: Effect of glyceryl trinitrate on peripheral arteries alters left ventricular hydraulic load in man. Cardiovasc Res 1986;20:153-160.

46 Simon AC, Safar ME, Levenson JA, Bouthier JE, Benetos A: Action of vasodilating drugs on small and large arteries of hypertensive patients. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1983;5:626-631.

47 Westerbacka J, Tamminen M, Cockcroft J, Yki-Jarvinen H: Comparison of in vivo effects of nitroglycerin and insulin on the aortic pressure waveform. Eur J Clin Invest 2004;34:1-8.

48 Wilkinson IB, Qasem A, McEniery CM, Webb DJ, Avolio AP, Cockcroft JR: Nitric oxide regulates local arterial distensibility in vivo. Circulation 2002;105:213-217.

Hannele Yki-Järvinen, MD, FRCP

Department of Medicine, Division of Diabetes, University of Helsinki PO Box 340, FI-00029 Helsinki (Finland) Tel. +358 9 471 71991, Fax +358 9 471 71992 E-Mail [email protected]

0 0

Post a comment