References

1 Mudd SH, Skovby F, Levy HL, Pettigrew KD, Wilcken B, Pyeritz RE, et al: The natural history of homocystinuria due to cystathionine ß-synthase deficiency. Am J Hum Genet 1985;37:1-31.

2 McCully KS: Vascular pathology of homocysteinemia: implications for the pathogenesis of arteriosclerosis. Am J Pathol 1969;56:111-128.

3 Wilcken DE, Wilcken B: The pathogenesis of coronary artery disease: a possible role for methionine metabolism. J Clin Invest 1976;57:1079-1082.

4 Stampfer MJ, Malinow R, Willett WC, Newcomer LM, Upson B, Ullmann D, et al: A prospective study of plasma homocysteine and risk of myocardial infarction in US physicians. JAMA 1992; 268:877-881.

5 Verhoef P, Hennekens CH, Malinow R, Kok FJ, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ: A prospective study of plasma homocyst(e)ine and risk of ischemic stroke. Stroke 1994;25:1924-1930.

6 Alfthan G, Pekkanen J, Jauhiainen M, Pitkaniemi J, Karvonen M, Tuomilehto J, et al: Relations of serum homocysteine and lipoprotein concentrations to atherosclerotic disease in a prospective Finnish population-based study. Atherosclerosis 1994;106:9-19.

7 Arnesen E, Refsum H, Bonaa KJ, Ueland PM, Forde OH, Nordrehaug JE: Serum total homocys-teine and coronary heart disease. Int J Epidemiol 1995;24:704-709.

8 Perry IJ, Refsum H, Morris RW, Ebrahim SB, Ueland PM, Shaper AG: Prospective study of serum total homocysteine concentration and risk of stroke in middle-aged British men. Lancet 1995: 346:1395-1398.

9 Evans RW, Shaten BJ, Hempel JD, Cutler JA, Kuller LH: Homocysteine and risk of cardiovascular disease in the multiple risk factor intervention trial. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1997; 17: 1947-1953.

10 Stehouwer CD, Weijenberg MP, van den Berg M, Jakobs C, Feskens EJ, Kromhout D: Serum homocysteine and risk of coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular disease in elderly men: a 10-year follow-up. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1998;18:1895-1901.

11 Folsom AR, Nieto J, McGovern PG, Tsai MY, Mallinow MR, Eckfeldt JH, et al: Prospective study of coronary heart disease incidence in relation to fasting total homocysteine, related genetic polymorphisms, and B vitamins: the Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities (ARIC) study. Circulation 1998;98:204-210.

12 Wald NJ, Watt HC, Law MR, Weir DG, McPartlin J, Scott JM: Homocysteine and ischaemic heart disease: results of a prospective study with implications regarding prevention. Arch Intern Med 1998; 158: 862-867.

13 Bots ML, Launer LJ, Lindemans J, Hoes AW, Hofman A, Witteman JC, et al: Homocysteine and short-term risk of myocardial infarction and stroke in the elderly: the Rotterdam study. Arch Intern Med 1999;159:38-44.

14 Whincup PH, Refsum H, Perry IJ, Morris R, Walker M, Lennon L, et al: Serum total homocysteine and coronary heart disease: prospective study in middle aged men. Heart 1999;82:448-454.

15 Knekt P, Alfthan G, Aromaa A, Heliovaara M, Marniemi J, Rissanen H, et al: Homocysteine and major coronary events: a prospective population study amongst women. J Intern Med 2001;249: 461-465.

16 Knekt P, Reunanen A, Alfthan G, Heliovaara M, Rissanen H, Marniemi J, et al: Hyperhomocys-teinaemia: a risk factor or a consequence of coronary heart disease? Arch Intern Med 2001; 161: 1589-1594.

17 Ubbink JB, Fehily AM, Pickering J, Elwood PC, Vermaak WJ: Homocysteine and ischaemic heart disease in the Caerphilly cohort. Atherosclerosis 1998; 140:349-356.

18 Ridker PM, Manson JE, Buring JE, Shih J, Matias M, Hennekens CH: Homocysteine and risk of cardiovascular disease among postmenopausal women. JAMA 1999;281:1817-1821.

19 Kark JD, Selhub J, Adler B, Gofin J, Abramson JH, Friedman G, et al: Nonfasting plasma total homocysteine level and mortality in middle-aged and elderly men and women in Jerusalem. Ann Intern Med. 1999;131:321-330.

20 Vollset SE, Refsum H, Tverdal A, Nygard O, Nordrehaug JE, Tell GS, et al: Plasma homocysteine and cardiovascular and noncardiovascular mortality: the Hordaland homocysteine study. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;74:130-136.

21 Bostom AG, Silbershatz W, Rosenberg IH, Selhub J, D'Agostino RB, Wolf PA, et al: Nonfasting plasma total homocysteine levels and all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in elderly Framingham men and women. Arch Intern Med 1999;159:1077-1080.

22 Fallon UB, Elwood P, Ben-Shlomo Y, Ubbink JB, Greenwood R, Smith GD: Homocysteine and ischaemic stroke in men: the Caerphilly study. J Epidemiol Community Health 2001;55:91-96.

23 Bostom AG, Rosenberg IH, Silbershatz H, Jacques PF, Selhub J, D'Agostino RB, et al: Nonfasting plasma total homocysteine levels and stroke incidence in elderly persons: the Framingham study. Ann Intern Med 1999;131:352-355.

24 Blacher J, Benetos A, Kirzin JM, Malmejac A, Guize L, Safar ME: Relation of plasma total homo-cysteine to cardiovascular mortality in a French population. Am J Cardiol 2002;90:591-595.

25 Lind P, Hedblad B, Hultberg B, Stavenow L, Janzon L, Lindgarde F: Risk of myocardial infarction in relation to plasma levels of homocysteine and inflammation-sensitive proteins: a long-term nested case-control study. Angiology 2003;54:401-410.

26 Voutilainen S, Virtanen JK, Rissanen TH, Althan G, Laukkanen J, Nyyssonen K, Mursu J, Val-konen VP, Tuomainen TP, Kaplan GA, Salonen JT: Serum folate and homocysteine and the incidence of acute coronary events: the Kuopio ischaemic heart disease risk factor study. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:317-323.

27 Sacco RL, Anand K, Lee HS, Boden-Albala B, Stabler S, Allen R, Paik MC: Homocysteine and the risk of ischemic stroke in a triethnic cohort: the Northern Manhattan Study. Stroke 2004;35: 2263-2269.

28 Zylberstein DE, Bengtsson C, Bjorkelund C, Landaas S, Sundh V, Thelle D, Lissner L: Serum homocysteine in relation to mortality and morbidity from coronary heart disease: a 24-year follow-up of the population study of women in Gothenburg. Circulation 2004;109:601-606.

29 Iso H, Moriyama Y, Sato S, Kitamura A, Tanigawa T, Yamagishi K, Imano H, Ohira T, Okamura T, Naito Y, Shimamoto T: Serum total homocysteine concentrations and risk of stroke and its subtypes in Japanese. Circulation 2004;109:2766-2772.

30 Nygard O, Nordrehaug JE, Refsum H, Ueland PM, Farstad M, Vollset SE: Plasma homocysteine levels and mortality in patients with coronary artery disease. N Engl J Med 1997;337:230-236.

31 Anderson JL, Muhlestein JB, Horne BD, Carlquist JF, Bair TL, Madsen TE, Pearson RR: Plasma homocysteine predicts mortality independently of traditional risk factors and C-reactive protein in patients with angiographically defined coronary artery disease. Circulation 2000;102:1227-1232.

32 Omland T, Samuelsson A, Hartford M, Herlitz J, Karlsson T, Christensen B, Caidahl K: Serum homocysteine concentration as an indicator of survival in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Arch Intern Med 2000;160:1834-1840.

33 Stubbs PJ, Al-Obaidi MK, Conroy RM, Collinson PO, Graham IM, Noble MI: Effect of plasma homocysteine concentration on early and late events in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Circulation 2000;102:605-610.

34 Tanne D, Haim M, Goldbourt U, Boyko V, Doolman R, Adler Y, Brunner D, Behar S, Sela BA: Prospective study of serum homocysteine and risk of ischemic stroke among patients with preexisting coronary heart disease. Stroke 2003;34:632-636.

35 Boysen G, Brander T, Christensen H, Gideon R, Truelsen T: Homocysteine and risk of recurrent stroke. Stroke 2003;34:1258-1261.

36 Stehouwer CDA, Gall MA, Hougaard P, Jakobs C, Parving HH: Plasma homocysteine concentration predicts mortality in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients with and without albuminuria. Kidney Int 1999;55:308-314.

37 Kark JD, Selhub J, Bostom A, Adler B, Rosenberg IH: Plasma homocysteine and all-cause mortality in diabetes. Lancet 1999;353:1936-1937.

38 Hoogeveen EK, Kostense PJ, Jakobs C, Dekker JM, Nijpels G, Heine RJ, Bouter LM, Stehouwer CD: Hyperhomocysteinemia increases risk of death, especially in type 2 diabetes: 5-year follow-up of the Hoorn Study. Circulation 2000;101:1506-1511.

39 Soinio M, Marniemi J, Laakso M, Lehto S, Ronnemaa T: Elevated plasma homocysteine level is an independent predictor of coronary heart disease events in patients with type 2 diabetes mel-litus. Ann Intern Med 2004;140:94-100.

40 Bostom AG, Shemin D, Verhoef P, et al: Elevated fasting total plasma homocysteine levels and cardiovascular disease outcomes in maintenance dialysis patients. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1997;17:2554-2558.

41 Moustapha A, Naso A, Nahlawi M, et al: Prospective study of hyperhomocysteinemia as an adverse cardiovascular risk factor in end-stage renal disease. Circulation 1998;97:138-141. Erratum in: Circulation 1998;97:711.

42 Ducloux D, Motte G, Challier B, Gibey R, Chalopin JM: Serum total homocysteine and cardiovascular disease occurrence in chronic, stable renal transplant recipients: a prospective study. J Am Soc Nephrol 2000;11:134-137.

43 Mallamaci F, Zoccali C, Tripepi G, et al: Hyperhomocysteinemia predicts cardiovascular outcomes in hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int 2002;61:609-614.

44 Suliman ME, Qureshi R, Barany P, et al: Hyperhomocysteinemia, nutritional status, and cardiovascular disease in hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int 2000;57:1727-1735.

45 Kalantar-Zadeh K, Block G, Humphreys MH, McAllister CJ, Kopple JD: A low, rather than a high, total plasma homocysteine is an indicator of poor outcome in hemodialysis patients. J Am Soc Nephrol 2004;15:442-453.

46 Suliman ME, Stenvinkel P, Qureshi R, et al: Hyperhomocysteinemia in relation to plasma free amino acids, biomarkers of inflammation and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease starting dialysis therapy. Am J Kidney Dis 2004;44:455-465.

47 Petri M, Roubenoff R, Dallal GE, Nadeau MR, Selhub J, Rosenberg IH: Plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for atherothrombotic events in systemic lupus erythematosus. Lancet 1996;348: 1120-1124.

48 Boushey CJ, Beresford SA, Omenn GS, Motulsky AG: A quantitative assessment of plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for vascular disease. Probable benefits of increasing folic acid intakes. JAMA 1995;274:1049-1057.

49 Wald DS, Law M, Morris JK: Homocysteine and cardiovascular disease: evidence on causality from a meta-analysis. BMJ 2002;325:1202-1206.

50 Yap S, Boers GH, Wilcken B, Wilcken DE, Brenton DP, Lee PJ, et al: Vascular outcome in patients with homocystinuria due to cystathionine ß-synthase deficiency treated chronically: a multicenter observational study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2001;21:2080-2085.

51 Homocysteine Studies Collaboration: Homocysteine and risk of ischemic heart disease and stroke: a meta-analysis. JAMA 2002;288:2015-2022.

52 Verhoef P, Kok FJ, Kruyssen DA, Schouten EG, Witteman JC, Grobbee DE, Ueland PM, Refsum H: Plasma total homocysteine, B vitamins, and risk of coronary atherosclerosis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1997;17:989-995.

53 Jacques PF, Bostom AG, Williams RR, Ellison RC, Eckfeldt JH, Rosenberg IH, et al: Relation between folate status, a common mutation in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, and plasma homocysteine concentrations. Circulation 1996;93:7-9.

54 Casas JP, Bautista LE, Smeeth L, Sharma P, Hingorani AD: Homocysteine and stroke: evidence on a causal link from mendelian randomisation. Lancet 2005; 365: 224-232.

55 Van Guldener C, Stehouwer CDA: Homocysteine-lowering treatment: an overview. Expert Opin Pharmacother 2001;2:1449-1460.

56 Homocysteine Lowering Trialists' Collaboration: Lowering blood homocysteine with folic acid based supplements: meta-analysis of randomised trials. BMJ 1998;316:894-898.

57 Vermeulen EG, Stehouwer CD, Twisk JW, van den Berg M, de Jong SC, Mackaay AJ, et al: Effect of homocysteine-lowering treatment with folic acid plus vitamin B6 on progression of subclinical atherosclerosis: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2000;355:517-522.

58 Vermeulen EG, Rauwerda JA, van den Berg M, de Jong SC, Schalkwijk C, Twisk JW, et al: Homo-cysteine-lowering treatment with folic acid plus vitamin B6 lowers urinary albumin excretion but not plasma markers of endothelial function or C-reactive protein: further analysis of secondary end-points of a randomized clinical trial. Eur J Clin Invest 2003;33:209-215.

59 Vermeulen EG, Stehouwer CD, Valk J, van der Knaap M, van den Berg M, Twisk JW, et al: Effect of homocysteine-lowering treatment with folic acid plus vitamin B6 on cerebrovascular atherosclerosis and white matter abnormalities as determined by MRA and MRI: a placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Eur J Clin Invest 2004;34:256-261.

60 Schnyder G, Roffi M, Pin R, Flammer Y, Lange H, Eberli FR, et al: Decreased rate of coronary restenosis after lowering of plasma homocysteine levels. N Engl J Med 2001;345:1593-1600.

61 Schnyder G, Roffi M, Flammer Y, Pin R, Hess OM: Effect of homocysteine-lowering therapy with folic acid, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6 on clinical outcome after percutaneous coronary intervention. JAMA 2002;288:973-979.

62 Lange H, Suryapranata H, De Luca G, Borner C, Dille J, Kallmayer K, et al: Folate therapy and in-stent restenosis after coronary stenting. N Engl J Med 2004;350:2673-2681.

63 Dusitanond P, Eikelboom JW, Hankey GJ, Thom J, Gilmore G, Loh K, et al: Homocysteine-low-ering treatment with folic acid, cobalamin, and pyridoxine does not reduce blood markers of inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, or hypercoagulability in patients with previous transient ischemic attack or stroke: a randomized substudy of the VITATOPS trial. Stroke 2005;36: 144-146.

64 Durga J, van Tits LJ, Schouten EG, Kok FJ, Verhoef P: Effect of lowering of homocysteine levels on inflammatory markers: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med 2005; 165:13881394.

65 Liem A, Reynierse-Buitenwerf GH, Zwinderman AH, Jukema JW, van Veldhuisen DJ: Secondary prevention with folic acid: effects on clinical outcomes. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;41:2105-2113.

66 Toole JF, Malinow MR, Chambless LE, Spence JD, Pettigrew LC, Howard VJ, et al: Lowering ho-mocysteine in patients with ischemic stroke to prevent recurrent stroke, myocardial infarction, and death: the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP) randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2004;291:565-575.

67 Wrone EM, Hornberger JM, Zehnder JL, McCann LM, Coplon NS, Fortmann SP: Randomized trial of folic acid for prevention of cardiovascular events in end-stage renal disease. J Am Soc Nephrol 2004;15:420-426.

68 Watanabe M, Osada J, Aratani Y, Kluckman K, Reddick R, Malinow MR, et al: Mice deficient in cystathionine ß-synthase: animal models for mild and severe homocyst(e)inemia. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1995;92:1585-1589.

69 Chen Z, Karaplis AC, Ackerman SL, Pogribny IP, Melnyk S, Lussier-Cacan S, et al: Mice deficient in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase exhibit hyperhomocysteinemia and decreased methyla-tion capacity, with neuropathology and aortic lipid deposition. Hum Mol Genet 2001; 10:433443.

70 Hofmann MA, Lalla E, Lu Y, Ryu Gleason M, Wolf BM, Tanji N, et al: Hyperhomocysteinemia enhances vascular inflammation and accelerates atherosclerosis in a murine model. J Clin Invest 2001;107:675-683.

71 Troen AM, Lütgens E, Smithe DE, Rosenberg IH, Selhub J: The atherogenic effect of excess methionine intake. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2003;100:15089-15094.

72 Wang H, Jiang X, Yang F, Gaubatz JW, Ma L, Magera MJ, et al: Hyperhomocysteinemia accelerates atherosclerosis in cystathionine ß-synthase and apolipoprotein E double knock-out mice with and without dietary perturbation. Blood 2003; 101:3901-3907.

73 Harker LA, Ross R, Slichter SJ, Scott CR: Homocystine-induced arteriosclerosis: the role of endothelial cell injury and platelet response in its genesis. J Clin Invest 1976;58:731-741.

74 Wall RT, Harlan JM, Harker LA, Striker GE: Homocysteine-induced endothelial cell injury in vitro: a model for the study of vascular injury. Thromb Res 1980;18:113-121.

75 Al Suwaidi J, Hamasaki S, Higano ST, Nishimura RA, Holmes DR, Lerman A: Long-term follow-up of patients with mild coronary artery disease and endothelial dysfunction. Circulation 2000; 101: 948-954.

76 Schachinger V, Britten MB, Zeiher AM: Prognostic impact of coronary vasodilator dysfunction on adverse long-term outcome of coronary heart disease. Circulation 2000;101:1899-1906.

77 Halcox JP, Schenke WH, Zalos G, Mincemoyer R, Prasad A, Waclawiw MA, et al: Prognostic value of coronary vascular endothelial dysfunction. Circulation 2002; 106:653-658.

78 Perticone F, Ceravolo R, Pujia A, Ventura G, Iacopino S, Scozzafava A, et al: Prognostic significance of endothelial dysfunction in hypertensive patients. Circulation 2001;104:191-196.

79 Heitzer T, Schlinzig T, Krohn K, Meinertz T, Munzel T: Endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and risk of cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation 2001;104: 2673-2678. Erratum in: Circulation 2003;108:500.

80 Neunteufl T, Heher S, Katzenschlager R, Wolfl G, Kostner K, Maurer G, et al: Late prognostic value of flow-mediated dilation in the brachial artery of patients with chest pain. Am J Cardiol 2000;86: 207-210.

81 Lentz SR, Sobey CG, Piegors DJ, Bhopatkar MY, Faraci FM, Malinow MR, et al: Vascular dysfunction in monkeys with diet-induced hyperhomocyst(e)inemia. J Clin Invest 1996;98:24-29.

82 Dayal S, Devlin AM, McCaw RB, Liu ML, Arning E, Bottiglieri T, et al: Cerebral vascular dysfunction in methionine synthase-deficient mice. Circulation 2005;112:737-744.

83 Celermayer DS, Sorensen K, Ryalls M, Robinson J, Thomas O, Leonard JV, et al: Impaired endothelial function occurs in the systemic arteries of children with homozygous homocystinuria but not in their heterozygous parents. J Am Coll Cardiol 1993;22:854-858.

84 Pullin CH, Bonham JR, McDowell IF, Lee PJ, Powers HJ, Wilson JF, et al: Vitamin C therapy ameliorates vascular endothelial dysfunction in treated patients with homocystinuria. J Inherit Metab Dis 2002;25:107-118.

85 Van Guldener C, Lambert J, Janssen MJ, Donker AJ, Stehouwer CD: Endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and distensibility of large arteries in chronic haemodialysis patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1997;12(suppl 2):14-18.

86 Van Guldener C, Janssen MJ, Lambert J, Steyn M, Donker AJ, Stehouwer CD: Endothelium-de-pendent vasodilatation is impaired in peritoneal dialysis patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1998; 13: 1782-1786.

87 Thambyrajah J, Landray MJ, McGlynn FJ, Jones HJ, Wheeler DC, Townend JN: Abnormalities of endothelial function in patients with predialysis renal failure. Heart 2000;83:205-209.

88 Tawakol A, Omland T, Gerhard M, Wu JT, Creager MA: Hyperhomocyst(e)inemia is associated with impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation in humans. Circulation 1997;95:1119-1121.

89 Woo KS, Chook P, Lolin YI, Cheung AS, Chan LT, Sun YY, et al: Hyperhomocyst(e)inemia is a risk factor for arterial endothelial function in humans. Circulation 1997; 96:2542-2544.

90 Lambert J, van den Berg M, Steyn M, Rauwerda JA, Donker AJ, Stehouwer CD: Familial hyper-homocysteinaemia and endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and arterial distensibility of large arteries. Cardiovasc Res 1999;42:743-751.

91 De Valk-de Roo GW, Stehouwer CD, Lambert J, Schalkwijk CG, van der Mooren MJ, Kluft C, et al: Plasma homocysteine is weakly correlated with plasma endothelin and von Willebrand factor but not with endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in healthy postmenopausal women. Clin Chem 1999;45:1200-1205.

92 Woodman RJ, Celermajer DE, Thompson PL, Hung J: Folic acid does not improve endothelial function in healthy hyperhomocysteinaemic subjects. Clin Sci 2004;106:353-358.

93 Welch GN, Loscalzo J: Homocysteine and atherothrombosis. N Eng J Med 1998;338:1042-1050.

94 Moat SJ, Lang D, McDowell IF, Clarke ZL, Madhavan AK, Lewis MJ, Goodfellow J: Folate, homocysteine, endothelial function and cardiovascular disease. J Nutr Biochem 2004;15:64-79.

95 Van Guldener C, Janssen MJ, Lambert J, ter Wee PM, Jakobs C, Donker AJ, et al: No change in impaired endothelial function after long-term folic acid therapy of hyperhomocysteinaemia in haemodialysis patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1998;13:106-112.

96 Thambyrajah J, Landray MJ, McGlynn FJ, Jones HJ, Wheeler DC, Townend JN: Does folic acid decrease plasma homocysteine and improve endothelial function in patients with predialysis renal failure? Circulation 2000;102:871-875.

97 Bellamy MF, McDowell IF, Ramsey MW, Brownlee M, Newcombe RG, Lewis MJ: Oral folate enhances endothelial function in hyperhomocysteinaemic subjects. Eur J Clin Invest 1999;29:659-662.

98 Woo KS, Chook P, Cheung AS, Fung WH, Qiao M, Lolin YI, et al: Long-term improvement in homocysteine levels and arterial endothelial function after 1-year folic acid supplementation. Am J Med 2002;112:535-539.

99 Chambers JC, Ueland PM, Obeid OA, Wrigley J. Refsum H, Kooner JS: Improved vascular endothelial function after oral B-vitamins: an effect mediated through reduced concentrations of free plasma homocysteine. Circulation 2000; 102:2479-2483.

100 Verhaar MC, Wever RM, Kastelijn JJ, van Dam T, Koomans HA, Rabelink TJ: 5-Methyltetrahy-drofolate, the active form of folic acid restores endothelial dysfunction in familial hypercholes-terolemia. Circulation 1998;97:237-241.

101 De Jong SC, Stehouwer CD, van den Berg M, Vischer UM, Rauwerda JA, Emeis JJ: Endothelial markers proteins in hyperhomocysteinemia. Thromb Haemost 1997;78:1332-1337.

102 Becker A, van Hinsbergh VW, Kostense PJ, Jager A, Dekker JM, Nijpels G, Heine RJ, Bouter LM, Stehouwer CD: Serum homocysteine is weakly associated with von Willebrand factor and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, but not with C-reactive protein in type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic subjects - the Hoorn Study. Eur J Clin Invest 2000; 30:763-770.

103 Peeters AC, van der Molen EF, Blom HJ, den Heijer M: The effect of homocysteine reduction by B-vitamin supplementation on markers of endothelial dysfunction. Thromb Haemost 2004;92: 1086 -1091.

104 Van Guldener C, Stehouwer CD: Hyperhomocysteinemia and vascular disease - a role for DNA hypomethylation? Lancet 2003;361:1668-1669.

105 Jakubowski H: Homocysteine-thiolactone and S-nitroso-homocysteine mediate incorporation of homocysteine into protein in humans. Clin Chem Lab Med 2003;41:1462-1466.

106 Hossain GS, van Thienen JV, Werstuck GH, Zhou J, Sood SK, Dickhout JG, et al: TDAG51 is induced by homocysteine, promotes detachment-mediated programmed cell death, and contributes to the development of atherosclerosis in hyperhomocysteinemia. J Biol Chem 2003 ;278: 30317-30327.

107 Lim U, Cassano PA: Homocysteine and blood pressure in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994. Am J Epidemiol 2002;156:1105-1113.

108 Van Guldener C, Nanayakkara PW, Stehouwer CD: Homocysteine and blood pressure. Curr Hy-pertens Rep 2003;5:26-31.

109 Van Guldener C, Stehouwer CD: Hyperhomocysteinemia, vascular pathology, and endothelial dysfunction. Semin Thromb Hemost 2000;26:281-289.

110 Symons JD, Mullick AE, Ensunsa JL, Ma AA, Rutledge JC: Hyperhomocysteinemia evoked by folate depletion: effects on coronary and carotid arterial function. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2002;22:772-780.

111 Rolland PH, Friggi A, Barlatier A, Piquet P, Latrille V, Faye MM, et al: Hyperhomocysteinemia-induced vascular damage in the minipig. Captopril-hydrochlorothiazide combination prevents elastic alterations. Circulation 1995;91:1161-1174.

112 Gibson JB, Carson NA, Neill DW. Pathological findings in homocystinuria. J Clin Pathol 1964; 17:427-437.

113 Vermeulen EG, Niessen HW, Bogels M, Stehouwer CD, Rauwerda JA, van Hinsbergh VW: Decreased smooth muscle cell/extracellular matrix ratio of media of femoral artery in patients with atherosclerosis and hyperhomocysteinemia. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2001;21:573-577.

114 Smilde TJ, van den Berkmortel FW, Boers GH, Wollersheim H, de Boo T, van Langen H, et al: Carotid and femoral artery wall thickness and stiffness in patients at risk for cardiovascular disease, with special emphasis on hyperhomocysteinemia. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1998; 18: 1958-1963.

115 Malinow MR, Levenson J, Giral P, Nieto FJ, Razavian M, Segond P, et al: Role of blood pressure, uric acid, and hemorheological parameters on plasma homocyst(e)ine concentration. Atherosclerosis 1995;114:175-183.

116 Pannier B, Guerin AP, Marchais SJ, Metivier F, Safar ME, London GM: Postischemic vasodilation, endothelial activation, and cardiovascular remodeling in end-stage renal disease. Kidney Int 2000;57:1091-1099.

117 Blacher J, Demuth K, Guerin AP, Safar ME, Moatti N, London GM: Influence of biochemical alterations on arterial stiffness in patients with end-stage renal disease. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1998;18:535-541.

118 Bortolotto LA, Safar ME, Billaud E, Lacroix C, Asmar R, London GM, et al: Plasma homocyste-ine, aortic stiffness, and renal function in hypertensive patients. Hypertension 1999; 34:837842.

119 Yasmin, Falzone R, Brown MJ: Determinants of arterial stiffness in offspring of families with essential hypertension. Am J Hypertens 2004; 17: 292-298.

120 Wilkinson IB, Megson IL, MacCallum T, Rooijmans DF, Johnson SM, Boyd JL, et al: Acute methionine loading does not alter arterial stiffness in humans. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2001;37: 1-5.

121 Nestel PJ, Chronopoulos A, Cehun M: Arterial stiffness is rapidly induced by raising the plasma homocysteine concentration with methionine. Atherosclerosis 2003;171:83-86.

122 Arcaro G, Fava C, Dagradi R, Faccini G, Gaino S, Degan M, et al: Acute hyperhomocysteinemia induces a reduction in arterial distensibility and compliance. J Hypertens 2004;22:775-781.

123 Van Guldener C, Lambert J, ter Wee PM, Donker AJ, Stehouwer CD: Carotid artery stiffness in patients with end-stage renal disease: no effect of long-term homocysteine-lowering therapy. Clin Nephrol 2000;53:33-41.

124 Van Dijk RA, Rauwerda JA, Steyn M, Twisk JW, Stehouwer CD: Long-term homocysteine-lower-ing treatment with folic acid plus pyridoxine is associated with decreased blood pressure but not with improved brachial artery endothelium-dependent vasodilation or carotid artery stiffness: a 2-year, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2001;21:2072-2079.

125 Mangoni AA, Sherwood RA, Swift CG, Jackson SH: Folic acid enhances endothelial function and reduces blood pressure in smokers: a randomized controlled trial. J Intern Med 2002;252:497-503.

126 Mangoni AA, Sherwood RA, Asonganyi B, Swift CG, Thomas S, Jackson SH: Short-term oral folic acid supplementation enhances endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes. Am J Hypertens 2005;18:220-226.

127 Williams C, Kingwell BA, Burke K, McPherson J, Dart AM: Folic acid supplementation for 3 weeks reduces pulse pressure and large artery stiffness independent of MTHFR genotype. Am J Clin Nutr 2005;82:26-31.

Dr. Coen D.A. Stehouwer

Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Maastricht PO Box 5800, NL-6202 AZ Maastricht (The Netherlands) Tel. +31 43 387 7006, Fax +31 43 387 5006 E-Mail [email protected]

Was this article helpful?

0 0

Post a comment