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2 Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, Cushman WC, Green LA, Izzo JL Jr, Jones DW, Materson BJ, Oparil S, Wright JT Jr, Roccella EJ: Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Hypertension 2003;42: 1206-1252.

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7 Izzo JL Jr: Arterial stiffness and the systolic hypertension syndrome. Curr Opin Cardiol 2004; 19: 341-352.

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10 Mitchell GF, Lacourciere Y, Arnold JM, Dunlap ME, Conlin PR, Izzo JL Jr: Changes in aortic stiffness and augmentation index after acute converting enzyme or vasopeptidase inhibition. Hypertension 2005;46:1111-1117.

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13 Camp NJ, Hopkins PN, Hasstedt SJ, Coon H, Malhotra A, Cawthon RM, Hunt SC: Genome-wide multipoint parametric linkage analysis of pulse pressure in large, extended Utah pedigrees. Hypertension 2003;42:322-328.

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16 Hollenberg NK, Martinez G, McCullough M, Meinking T, Passan D, Preston M, Rivera A, Tap-lin D, Vicaria-Clement M: Aging, acculturation, salt intake, and hypertension in the Kuna of Panama. Hypertension 1997;29:171-176.

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19 Mitchell GF, Lacourciere Y, Ouellet JP, Izzo JL Jr, Neutel J, Kerwin LJ, Block AJ, Pfeffer MA: Determinants of elevated pulse pressure in middle-aged and older subjects with uncomplicated systolic hypertension: the role of proximal aortic diameter and the aortic pressure-flow relationship. Circulation 2003; 108:1592-1598.

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24 Bezie Y, Lacolley P, Laurent S, Gabella G: Connection of smooth muscle cells to elastic lamellae in aorta of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Hypertension 1998;32:166-169.

25 Shykoff BE, Hawari FI, Izzo JL Jr: Diameter, pressure and compliance relationships in dorsal hand veins. Vasc Med 2001;6:97-102.

26 Stefanadis C, Vlachopoulos C, Karayannacos P, Boudoulas H, Stratos C, Filippides T, Agapitos M, Toutouzas P: Effect of vasa vasorum flow on structure and function of the aorta in experimental animals. Circulation 1995;91:2669-2678.

27 Vasan RS, Larson MG, Levy D: Determinants of echocardiographic aortic root size. The Framingham Heart Study. Circulation 1995;91:734-740.

28 Agmon Y, Khandheria BK, Meissner I, Schwartz GL, Sicks JD, Fought AJ, O'Fallon WM, Wiebers DO, Tajik AJ: Is aortic dilatation an atherosclerosis-related process? Clinical, laboratory, and transesophageal echocardiographic correlates of thoracic aortic dimensions in the population with implications for thoracic aortic aneurysm formation. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;42:1076-1083.

29 Lacolley P, Glaser E, Challande P, Boutouyrie P, Mignot JP, Duriez M, Levy B, Safar M, Laurent S: Structural changes and in situ aortic pressure-diameter relationship in long-term chemical-sympathectomized rats. Am J Physiol 1995;269:H407-H416.

30 Nosaka T, Tanaka H, Watanabe I, Sato M, Matsuda M: Influence of regular exercise on age-related changes in arterial elasticity: mechanistic insights from wall compositions in rat aorta. Can J Appl Physiol 2003;28:204-212.

31 Brouwers-Ceiler DL, Nelissen-Vrancken HJ, Smits JF, De Mey JG: The influence of angiotensin II-induced increase in aortic wall mass on compliance in rats in vivo. Cardiovasc Res 1997;33: 478-484.

32 Ceiler DL, Nelissen-Vrancken HJ, Smits JF, De Mey JG: Pressure but not angiotensin II-induced increases in wall mass or tone influences static and dynamic aortic mechanics. J Hypertens 1999; 17: 1109-1116.

33 Lacolley P, Labat C, Pujol A, Delcayre C, Benetos A, Safar M: Increased carotid wall elastic modulus and fibronectin in aldosterone-salt-treated rats: effects of eplerenone. Circulation 2002;106: 2848-2853.

34 Benetos A, Topouchian J, Ricard S, Gautier S, Bonnardeaux A, Asmar R, Poirier O, Soubrier F, Safar M, Cambien F: Influence of angiotensin II type 1 receptor polymorphism on aortic stiffness in never-treated hypertensive patients. Hypertension 1995;26:44-47.

35 Benetos A, Gautier S, Ricard S, Topouchian J, Asmar R, Poirier O, Larosa E, Guize L, Safar M, Soubrier F, Cambien F: Influence of angiotensin-converting enzyme and angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene polymorphisms on aortic stiffness in normotensive and hypertensive patients. Circulation 1996;94:698-703.

36 Safar ME, Lajemi M, Rudnichi A, Asmar R, Benetos A: Angiotensin-converting enzyme D/I gene polymorphism and age-related changes in pulse pressure in subjects with hypertension. Arterio-scler Thromb Vasc Biol 2004;24:782-786.

37 Mitchell GF, Izzo JL Jr, Lacourciere Y, Ouellet JP, Neutel J, Qian C, Kerwin LJ, Block AJ, Pfeffer MA: Omapatrilat reduces pulse pressure and proximal aortic stiffness in patients with systolic hypertension: results of the conduit hemodynamics of omapatrilat international research study. Circulation 2002;105:2955-2961.

38 Kass DA, Shapiro EP, Kawaguchi M, Capriotti AR, Scuteri A, deGroof RC, Lakatta EG: Improved arterial compliance by a novel advanced glycation end-product crosslink breaker. Circulation 2001;104:1464-1470.

39 Van Bortel LM, Spek JJ: Influence of aging on arterial compliance. J Hum Hypertens 1998; 12: 583-586.

40 Kelly R, Hayward C, Avolio A, O'Rourke M: Noninvasive determination of age-related changes in the human arterial pulse. Circulation 1989;80:1652-1659.

41 O'Rourke MF, Nichols WW: Changes in wave reflection with advancing age in normal subjects. Hypertension 2004;44:e10.

42 O'Rourke MF, Nichols WW: Aortic diameter, aortic stiffness, and wave reflection increase with age and isolated systolic hypertension. Hypertension 2005; 45: 652-658.

43 Vasan RS, Larson MG, Benjamin EJ, Levy D: Echocardiographic reference values for aortic root size: the Framingham Heart Study. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 1995;8:793-800.

44 Bella JN, Wachtell K, Boman K, Palmieri V, Papademetriou V, Gerdts E, Aalto T, Olsen MH, Olofsson M, Dahlof B, Roman MJ, Devereux RB: Relation of left ventricular geometry and function to aortic root dilatation in patients with systemic hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy (the LIFE study). Am J Cardiol 2002;89:337-341.

45 Karamanoglu M, O'Rourke MF, Avolio AP, Kelly RP: An analysis of the relationship between central aortic and peripheral upper limb pressure waves in man. Eur Heart J 1993;14:160-167.

46 O'Rourke MF, Vlachopoulos C, Graham RM: Spurious systolic hypertension in youth. Vasc Med 2000;5:141-145.

47 Wilkinson IB, Franklin SS, Hall IR, Tyrrell S, Cockcroft JR: Pressure amplification explains why pulse pressure is unrelated to risk in young subjects. Hypertension 2001;38:1461-1466.

48 McEniery CM, Yasmin, Hall IR, Qasem A, Wilkinson IB, Cockcroft JR: Normal vascular aging: differential effects on wave reflection and aortic pulse wave velocity: the Anglo-Cardiff Collaborative Trial (ACCT). J Am Coll Cardiol 2005;46:1753-1760.

49 Filipovsky J, Ticha M, Cifkova R, Lanska V, Stastna V, Roucka P: Large artery stiffness and pulse wave reflection: results of a population-based study. Blood Pressure 2005; 14:45-52.

50 Woodman RJ, Kingwell BA, Beilin LJ, Hamilton SE, Dart AM, Watts GF: Assessment of central and peripheral arterial stiffness: studies indicating the need to use a combination of techniques. Am J Hypertens 2005;18:249-260.

51 Lacy PS, O'Brien DG, Stanley AG, Dewar MM, Swales PP, Williams B: Increased pulse wave velocity is not associated with elevated augmentation index in patients with diabetes. J Hypertens 1937;22:1937-1944.

52 Lemogoum D, Flores G, Van den Abeele W, Ciarka A, Leeman M, Degaute JP, van de Borne P, Van Bortel L: Validity of pulse pressure and augmentation index as surrogate measures of arterial stiffness during ^-adrenergic stimulation. J Hypertens 2004;22:511-517.

53 Wilkinson IB, MacCallum H, Hupperetz PC, van Thoor CJ, Cockcroft JR, Webb DJ: Changes in the derived central pressure waveform and pulse pressure in response to angiotensin II and nor-adrenaline in man. J Physiol 2001;530:541-550.

54 Wilkinson IB, MacCallum H, Cockcroft JR, Webb DJ: Inhibition of basal nitric oxide synthesis increases aortic augmentation index and pulse wave velocity in vivo. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2002; 53:189-192.

55 Hope SA, Meredith IT, Cameron JD: Effect of non-invasive calibration of radial waveforms on error in transfer-function-derived central aortic waveform characteristics. Clin Sci 2004; 107: 205-211.

56 Hope SA, Tay DB, Meredith IT, Cameron JD: Use of arterial transfer functions for the derivation of central aortic waveform characteristics in subjects with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Diabetes Care 2004;27:746-751.

57 Morgan T, Lauri J, Bertram D, Anderson A: Effect of different antihypertensive drug classes on central aortic pressure. Am J Hypertens 2004;17:118-123.

58 Dhakam Z, McEniery CM, Yasmin, Cockcroft JR, Brown MJ, Wilkinson IB: Atenolol and epro-sartan: differential effects on central blood pressure and aortic pulse wave velocity. Am J Hyper-tens 2006;19:214-219.

59 Williams B, Lacy PS, Thom SM, Cruickshank K, Stanton A, Collier D, Hughes AD, Thurston H, O'Rourke M: Differential impact of blood pressure-lowering drugs on central aortic pressure and clinical outcomes: principal results of the Conduit Artery Function Evaluation (CAFE) study. Circulation 2006;113:1213-1225.

60 Oparil S, Izzo JL Jr: Pulsology rediscovered: commentary on the Conduit Artery Function Evaluation (CAFE) study. Circulation 2006;113:1162-1163.

61 Loutzenhiser R, Bidani A, Chilton L: Renal myogenic response: kinetic attributes and physiological role. Circ Res 2002;90:1316-1324.

62 Mitchell GF, Moye LA, Braunwald E, Rouleau JL, Bernstein V, Geltman EM, Flaker GC, Pfeffer MA: Sphygmomanometrically determined pulse pressure is a powerful independent predictor of recurrent events after myocardial infarction in patients with impaired left ventricular function. SAVE investigators. Survival and Ventricular Enlargement. Circulation 1997;96:4254-4260.

63 Franklin SS, Khan SA, Wong ND, Larson MG, Levy D: Is pulse pressure useful in predicting risk for coronary heart disease? The Framingham Heart Study. Circulation 1999; 100:354-360.

64 Chae CU, Pfeffer MA, Glynn RJ, Mitchell GF, Taylor JO, Hennekens CH: Increased pulse pressure and risk of heart failure in the elderly. JAMA 1999;281:634-639.

65 Domanski MJ, Davis BR, Pfeffer MA, Kastantin M, Mitchell GF: Isolated systolic hypertension: prognostic information provided by pulse pressure. Hypertension 1999;34:375-380.

66 Laurent S, Katsahian S, Fassot C, Tropeano AI, Gautier I, Laloux B, Boutouyrie P: Aortic stiffness is an independent predictor of fatal stroke in essential hypertension. Stroke 2003;34:1203-1206.

67 Kivipelto M, Helkala EL, Laakso MP, Hanninen T, Hallikainen M, Alhainen K, Iivonen S, Man-nermaa A, Tuomilehto J, Nissinen A, Soininen H: Apolipoprotein E 84 allele, elevated midlife total cholesterol level, and high midlife systolic blood pressure are independent risk factors for late-life Alzheimer disease. Ann Intern Med 2002;137:149-155.

68 Launer LJ, Masaki K, Petrovitch H, Foley D, Havlik RJ: The association between midlife blood pressure levels and late-life cognitive function. The Honolulu-Asia Aging Study. JAMA 1995; 274: 1846-1851.

69 Freitag MH, Peila R, Masaki K, Petrovitch H, Ross GW, White LR, Launer LJ: Midlife pulse pressure and incidence of dementia: the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study. Stroke 2006;37:33-37.

70 Liao D, Cooper L, Cai J, Toole J, Bryan N, Burke G, Shahar E, Nieto J, Mosley T, Heiss G: The prevalence and severity of white matter lesions, their relationship with age, ethnicity, gender, and cardiovascular disease risk factors: the ARIC Study. Neuroepidemiology 1997;16:149-162.

71 Duprez DA, De Buyzere ML, Van den Noortgate N, Simoens J, Achten E, Clement DL, Afschrift M, Cohn JN: Relationship between periventricular or deep white matter lesions and arterial elasticity indices in very old people. Age Ageing 2001;30:325-330.

72 Klein R, Klein BE, Tomany SC, Cruickshanks KJ: The association of cardiovascular disease with the long-term incidence of age-related maculopathy: the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Ophthalmology 2003;110:1273-1280.

73 Safar ME, Blacher J, Pannier B, Guerin AP, Marchais SJ, Guyonvarc'h PM, London GM: Central pulse pressure and mortality in end-stage renal disease. Hypertension 2002;39:735-738.

74 Hirose K, Tomiyama H, Okazaki R, Arai T, Koji Y, Zaydun G, Hori S, Yamashina A: Increased pulse wave velocity associated with reduced calcaneal quantitative osteo-sono index: possible relationship between atherosclerosis and osteopenia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003;88:2573-2578.

75 Salomaa V, Riley W, Kark JD, Nardo C, Folsom AR: Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and fasting glucose and insulin concentrations are associated with arterial stiffness indexes. The ARIC Study. Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Circulation 1995;91:1432-1443.

76 Henry RM, Kostense PJ, Spijkerman AM, Dekker JM, Nijpels G, Heine RJ, Kamp O, Westerhof N, Bouter LM, Stehouwer CD, Study H: Arterial stiffness increases with deteriorating glucose tolerance status: the Hoorn Study. Circulation 2003;107:2089-2095.

77 Mackey RH, Sutton-Tyrrell K, Vaitkevicius PV, Sakkinen PA, Lyles MF, Spurgeon HA, Lakatta EG, Kuller LH: Correlates of aortic stiffness in elderly individuals: a subgroup of the Cardiovascular Health Study. Am J Hypertens 2002;15:16-23.

78 Safar ME: Peripheral pulse pressure, large arteries, and microvessels. Hypertension 2004;44: 121-122.

79 O'Rourke MF, Safar ME: Relationship between aortic stiffening and microvascular disease in brain and kidney: cause and logic of therapy. Hypertension 2005; 46:200-204.

80 Mitchell GF, Vita JA, Larson MG, Parise H, Keyes MJ, Warner E, Vasan RS, Levy D, Benjamin EJ: Cross-sectional relations of peripheral microvascular function, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and aortic stiffness: the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation 2005;112:3722-3728.

81 Baumbach GL, Siems JE, Heistad DD: Effects of local reduction in pressure on distensibility and composition of cerebral arterioles. Circ Res 1991;68:338-351.

82 Baumbach GL: Effects of increased pulse pressure on cerebral arterioles. Hypertension 1996;27: 159-167.

83 James MA, Watt PA, Potter JF, Thurston H, Swales JD: Pulse pressure and resistance artery structure in the elderly. Hypertension 1995;26:301-306.

84 Christensen KL: Reducing pulse pressure in hypertension may normalize small artery structure. Hypertension 1991;18:722-727.

85 Ryan SM, Waack BJ, Weno BL, Heistad DD: Increases in pulse pressure impair acetylcholine-induced vascular relaxation. Am J Physiol 1995; 268:H359-H363.

86 Nigam A, Mitchell GF, Lambert J, Tardif JC: Relation between conduit vessel stiffness (assessed by tonometry) and endothelial function (assessed by flow-mediated dilatation) in patients with and without coronary heart disease. Am J Cardiol 2003; 92:395-399.

87 Sullivan JM, Prewitt RL, Josephs JA: Attenuation of the microcirculation in young patients with high-output borderline hypertension. Hypertension 1983;5:844-851.

88 Ciuffetti G, Schillaci G, Innocente S, Lombardini R, Pasqualini L, Notaristefano S, Mannarino E: Capillary rarefaction and abnormal cardiovascular reactivity in hypertension. J Hypertens 2003;21:2297-2303.

89 Cirillo M, Stellato D, Laurenzi M, Panarelli W, Zanchetti A, De Santo NG: Pulse pressure and isolated systolic hypertension: association with microalbuminuria. The GUBBIO Study Collaborative Research. Kidney Int 2000;58:1211-1218.

Department of Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo 3 Gates Circle, Buffalo, NY 14209 (USA)

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Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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