UML Diagrams and XML Schemas

XML is a markup language that focuses on the organization of information. It allows the creation of structured documents that can be visually rendered with the appropriate tools. The W3C XML Schema Definition Language is an XML language for describing and structuring the content of XML documents 25 . Similar to a DTD, an XML Schema helps defining the building blocks of an XML document. An XML Schema defines - The elements that can appear in a document - The attributes that can appear in a...

State Model First Level and Second Level States

In this section we describe the state model at two levels of granularity. The first level consists of two main states diabetes preventive care and diabetes long-term management (top and bottom of Fig. 3, respectively). Each main state consists of three substates (second level). The diabetes preventive care state (top half of Fig. 3) focuses on providing regular screening for early detection of symptoms and complications initial diagnosis of type II diabetes and preventive services to help...

Foot Care

Diabetes can damage peripheral nervous tissue with the consequent loss of protective sensation. Increased risk factors include having diabetes for more than 10 years, being male, having poor glucose control, and having cardiovascular, renal or retinal complications. Patients should be advised to recognize early symptoms including loss of vibration sense, pain sensation, and temperature sensation in the feet. The American Diabetes Association recommends a multidisciplinary approach to management...

Smoking Cessation

There is a high incidence of smoking-related deaths in the US in the general population, with even higher rates in diabetic patients. Several epidemiological studies have linked smoking with insulin resistance, an early and potentially modifiable metabolic defect in the pathogenesis of type II diabetes 16,17 . They have also shown a correlation between tobacco consumption and the incidence of diabetes 18,19 , and cardiovascular complications 10,20 . The routine assessment of tobacco use and...

State Model for Management of Type II Diabetes

The proposed state model is a chronic disease state management system for the continuum of diabetes care. Developed by the Decision Systems Group at the Brigham & Women's Hospital, Boston, USA and the Clinical Knowledge Management Group at Partners HealthCare Systems, Inc., the state model aims to provide integrated care across the entire spectrum of the disease and its complications, and the prevention of comorbidities. The clinical expertise reflected in the state model has been developed...

Long Term Management

Type II diabetes is not an isolated disease, but rather, a complex metabolic abnormality often involving hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, renal function, and a spectrum of cardiovascular diseases. Appropriate management of diabetes requires multiple strategies aimed to improve the patient's glycaemic control, and minimize the risk of complications, based on individual preferences, comorbidities, and the overall prognosis. The key element for a successful outcome, however, is cooperation...

Preventive Care

Preventive care aims to improve delivery of appropriate clinical preventive services by helping patients to maintain and or develop healthy lifestyle habits and eliminate high-risk behaviors. In the context of managing type II diabetes, there are several health factors that require close observation, e.g., blood pressure, lipid management, antiplatelet agents, smoking cessation, coronary heart disease (CHD) and immunization. These factors are explained in more detail in the following sections.

Assessing the Quality of Care for End Stage Renal Failure Patients by Means of Artificial Intelligence Methodologies

Stefania Montani, Luigi Portinale, Riccardo Bellazzi, Cristiana Larizza, and Roberto Bellazzi 89 89 2 Hemodialysis Treatment for ESRD 91 4 Case-Based Retrieval for ESRD 98 5.1 Testing the Data Mining 5.2 Testing the Case-Based Retrieval System 105 Mining the Electronic Medical Record to Examine Physician Decisions Patricia B. 2.1 Market Basket Analysis 2.2 Text Analysis 2.3 Data 3.1 Examination of Cost 3.2 Examination of Treatment Combinations 120 3.3 Examination of Antibiotic Use 122...

UML Statecharts

State Diagram Uml Substate

The UML is a standard object modeling language that defines the notation and semantics often used for information and logical data modeling. In the context of the UML, classes are used to represent entities, exhibiting some sort of state behavior 33 . This behavior can be captured by state machines, or the UML equivalent, statecharts. UML statecharts are used to model transitions from state to state as a result of a triggering event - represented by the transition condition. Like FSM,...

References

Bates DW, Teich JM, Lee J, Seger DL, Kuperman GJ, Ma'Luf N, et al. The impact of computerized physician order entry on medication error prevention. J Am Med Inform Assoc 1999 6 313-321 2. Horsky J, Kuperman GJ, Patel V. Comprehensive analysis of a medication dosing error related to CPOE. J Am Med Inform Assoc 2005 12 4 3. Clinical Informatics Research and Development CIRD . Partners Healthcare. 4. Partners Healthcare System. http www.partners.org 5. Poon EG, Wang SJ, Gandhi TK, Bates DW,...

UML 2 State Machine Diagrams 41 State Diagrams

State diagrams are a graphical representation of finite state machines. A finite state machine FSM or finite automaton models the behavior of a system in terms of states, transitions, and actions. An FSM is a tuple of the form where S is a finite set of all possible states, S0 is the initial state where S0 G S, S is an alphabet with all possible symbols, S Sx S S is a transition function that indicates a state change. The condition s for such a change to take place is defined by rule s , and a...

Immunization

Although limited, epidemiological studies have demonstrated that patients with diabetes are at higher risk for complications, hospitalization, and death from influenza and pneumococcal disease, and may benefit from vaccination 23 . Immunization of diabetic patients has the potential of reducing hospital admissions during influenza epidemics and the morbidity and mortality related to these diseases. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend that all persons over 65 years of age,...