Although limited, epidemiological studies have demonstrated that patients with diabetes are at higher risk for complications, hospitalization, and death from influenza and pneumococcal disease, and may benefit from vaccination . Immunization of diabetic patients has the potential of reducing hospital admissions during influenza epidemics and the morbidity and mortality related to these diseases. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend that all persons over 65 years of age, as well as all diabetic patients regardless of their age receive annual influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations . Similarly, the American Diabetes Association recommends that :
1. All diabetic patients 6 months of age and older should receive an influenza vaccine every year.
2. Adult patients with diabetes should receive at least one lifetime pneumo-coccal vaccination
3. One-time pneumococcal revaccination is recommended for
(a) Patients older than 64 years of age, if they were immunized when they were < 65 years old, and the vaccine was administered more than five years ago
(b) If patient suffers from
- Nephrotic syndrome
- Chronic renal failure
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