Cineplastic Revision

To improve the function of upper limb stumps, skin-covered tubes, rings and hooks were constructed to contain exteriorised working muscles and tendons, first by Ceci in 1896, at the direction of Vanghetti, and continued by other Italian and also German surgeons; Sauerbruch reported 1500 cases in 1920. In the United States and UK, this form of plastic reconstruction was found less successful and rarely undertaken after World War I.37 An alternative procedure, the Krukenburg conversion, proved more practical, especially for double forearm and blind amputees, involving separation of the radial and ulnar stumps to form active pincers. This technique required mobilisation of the radius to "pinch" the stable ulna, both covered with skin and moving tendons appropriately.38 Due to the unappealing aesthetic result, it did not prove popular in Westernised societies39 but for poorer societies, without sophisticated hand prostheses, it has proved valuable especially for bilateral amputees whose livelihood depends on manual labour.40

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How To Reduce Acne Scarring

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

Acne is a name that is famous in its own right, but for all of the wrong reasons. Most teenagers know, and dread, the very word, as it so prevalently wrecks havoc on their faces throughout their adolescent years.

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