References

1. Little EM. Artificial Limbs and Amputation Stumps: A Practical Handbook. London: Lewis, 1922:1.

2. Murdoch G, Wilson AB (editors). Amputation: Surgical Practice and Patient Management. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1996:2.

3. Murdoch G (editor). Prosthetics and Orthotic Practice. London: Arnold, 1970: preface, vii.

4. Examples of books and manuals on amputations and prostheses since 1885.Watson AB. A Treatise on Amputations of the Extremities and Their Complications. Philadelphia: Blakiston, 1885; Bigg, see Ref. 27; Broca and Ducroquet, see Ref. 47; Ernst FG. Artificial Legs for Use after Amputations and Congenital Deficiencies. London, 1923 as cited by Gillis L. Artificial Limbs. London: Pitronan Medical, 1957: 27.); Martin F. Artificial Limbs, Appliances for the Disabled. Geneva: International Labor Office, 1924; Ministry of Pensions. Artificial Limbs and Their Relations to Amputations. London: HMSO, 1939; Ministère des Anciens Combattants et Pensionnés. L'Appareillage des Invalides de Guerre (Prothèse et Orthopédie): Principes et Techniques. Paris:

Imprimerie Nationale, 1940; Langdale-Kelham RD, Perkins G. Amputations and Artificial Limbs. London: Oxford University Press, 1942; Thomas and Haddan, see Ref. 5; Daniel E. Amputation Prosthetic Service. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1950; Klopsteg PE, Wilson PD. Human Limbs and Their Substitutes. New York: McGraw Hill, 1954; Gillis, see Refs. 34, 35; Kelham RDL. Artificial Limbs in the Rehabilitation of the Disabled. London: HMSO, 1957; Fulford GE, Hall MJ. Amputations and Prostheses. Bristol: Wright, 1968; Murdoch, see Ref. 3; Sarmiento A. Symposium on Amputation Surgery and Prosthetics. Orthop Clin North Am 1972;3:267-499; Vitali, see Ref. 36; Murdoch and Wilson, see Ref. 2; Robinson, see Ref. 26; Morrison JD. Amputations. In: Bulstrode C (editor) Oxford Textbook of Orthopaedics and Trauma, vol 2. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002:1496-1511.

5. Thomas A, Haddan CC. Amputation Prosthesis. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1945:1.

6. Epstein S. Art, history and the crutch. Ann Med Hist 1937;9:304-313.

7. Padula PA, Friedmann LW. Acquired amputation and prostheses before the 16th century. Angiology 1987;38(2):133-141.

8. Garrison FG. An Introduction to the History of Medicine. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1929:172.

9. Aldea PA, Aldea GS, Shaw WW. A historical perspective on the changing methods of management for major trauma of the lower extremity. SGO (Surg Gynecol Obstet) 1987;165:549-562.

10. Woodall J. The Surgeons Mate. London: Bourne, 1639:395.

11. Little EM. Artificial Limbs and Amputation Stumps: A Practical Handbook. London: Lewis, 1922:6.

12. Gruber von Arni EE. Justice to the Maimed Soldier. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2001:184-185. (From Bills in the National Archive at Kew, London Public Records Office. sp. 18.)

13. Moyle J. Chirurgus Marinus; or the Sea-Chirurgeon. London: Tracey, 1693:91-92.

14. Filer J. Egyptian Bookshelf: Diseases. London: British Museum, 1995:90.

15. Doran A. Historical Instrument Collection. Royal College of Surgeons of England, 1923 (manuscript).

16. Putti V. Historic Artificial Limbs. New York: Hoeber, 1930.

17. Thomas A, Haddan CC. Amputation Prosthesis. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1945:3.

18. Anonymous. In lieu of a limb. Lancet 1919;1:921.

19. Information from Stewart Emmens of the Science Museum, London.

20. Little EM. Artificial Limbs and Amputation Stumps: A Practical Handbook. London: Lewis, 1922:9.

21. Little EM. Artificial Limbs and Amputation Stumps: A Practical Handbook. London: Lewis, 1922:8.

22. Little EM. Artificial Limbs and Amputation Stumps: A Practical Handbook. London: Lewis, 1922:12.

23. Thomas A, Haddan CC. Amputation Prosthesis. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1945:6-7.

24. Bly D. Remarkable Invention: an anatomical leg with lateral or side motion at the ankle like the natural one. Rochester: 1868. (Cited thus by Thomas A, Haddan CC. Amputation Prosthesis. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1945:15.)

25. de Beaufort Compte. Recherches sur la Prothese des Membres 1867. (Cited by Thomas A, Haddan CC. Amputation Prosthesis. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1945:8-13.)

26. Robinson KP. Amputation surgery from 1800 to the present. In: Klenerman L (editor) The Evolution of Orthopaedic Surgery. London: RSM Press, 2002: 175-190.

27. Bigg H. Artificial Limbs. London: Author, 1885:104.

28. Thomas A, Haddan CC. Amputation Prosthesis. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1945:7.

29. Thomas A, Haddan CC. Amputation Prosthesis. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1945:10.

30. Bigg H. Artificial Limbs. London: Author, 1885:32.

31. Thomas A, Haddan CC. Amputation Prosthesis. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1945:10-11.

32. Little EM. Artificial Limbs and Amputation Stumps: A Practical Handbook. London: Lewis, 1922:22-23.

33. Thomas A, Haddan CC. Amputation Prosthesis. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1945:12.

34. Gillis L. Artificial Limbs. London: Pitman Medical, 1957: appendix C.

35. Gillis L. Artificial Limbs. London: Pitman Medical, 1957: preface.

36. Vitali M, Robinson KP, Andrews BG, et al. Amputations and Prostheses. London: Bailliere-Tindall, 1986:6-7.

37. Vitali M, Robinson KP, Andrews BG, et al. Amputations and Prostheses. London: Bailliere-Tindall, 1986:7-9.

38. Vitali M, Robinson KP, Andrews BG, et al. Amputations and Prostheses. London: Bailliere-Tindall, 1986:8.

39. Murdoch G, Wilson AB (editors). Amputation: Surgical Practice and Patient Management. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1996: preface.

40. Murdoch G, Wilson AB (editors). Amputation: Surgical Practice and Patient Management. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1996:2.

41. Murdoch G, Wilson AB (editors). Amputation: Surgical Practice and Patient Management. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1996:2-3.

42. Branemark R, Rydevik BL, Skalak R. Osseointegra-tion in Skeletál Reconstruction and Joint Replacement. Chicago: Quintessence Publishing, 1997.

43. Gunterburg B, Branemark P-I, Branemark R, et al. Osseointegrated prosthesis in lower limb amputation; the development of a new concept. In: Conference Book, Xlth World Congress, International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics, Copenhagen: ISPO, 1998:137-139.

44. Sullivan J, Uden M, Robinson KP, et al. Rehabilitation of the trans-femoral amputee with an osseoin-tegrated prosthesis: the United Kingdom experience. Prosthet Orthot Int 2003;27:114-120.

45. Bigg H. Artificial Limbs. London: Author, 1885:6263.

46. Little EM. Artificial Limbs and Amputation Stumps: A Practical Handbook. London: Lewis, 1922:258265.

47. Broca A, Ducroquet Dr. Artificial Limbs (translated by R.C. Elmslie). London: University of London Press, 1918:150-157.

48. Thomas A, Haddan CC. Amputation Prosthesis. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1945:257-290.

49. Eisma WH. Principles and philosophy of rehabilitation. In: Murdoch G, Wilson AB (editors) Amputation: Surgical Practice and Patient Management. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1996:257.

50. Report by Sarah Baxter in Sunday Times, March 13,

2005.

52. Collin. Catalogue d'Instruments. Paris: Chez Collin, 1914.

53. Report by Sam Lister in the London Times, 3 July

2006.

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