Structure Orientation and Possible Mechanism of Action of Therapeutic Agents for RDS

Nursing Orientation Onboarding Structure

Other applications of IRRAS follow from the expectation that understanding the molecular mechanism of surfactant function will improve rational design of therapeutic agents for respiratory distress syndrome. Johansson et al. 2001 recently reviewed the use of artificial surfactants based on analogues of SP-B and SP-C. For example, peptides with at least 17 amino acids corresponding to the C-ter-minal part of SP-B accelerate surfactant spreading and improve lung compliance in fetal rabbits. Also...

TROSY for Studies of Intermolecular Interactions and Drug Design

Study of intermolecular interactions, including protein-protein, protein-nucleic acid, and protein-ligand interactions, can provide valuable information related to the physiological roles of a newly discovered protein. Moreover, these studies are of primary interest for drug discovery aiming at the design of high-affinity ligands for relevant biological molecules Hajduk et al. 1999 Pellecchia et al. 2002 Meyer and Peters 2003 . Several standard NMR experiments used to study intermolecular...

What Is DSC

DSC is a powerful technique to characterize temperature-induced conformational changes in proteins and other biological macromolecules. A differential scanning calorimeter basically consists of two cells the reference cell and the sample cell for a detailed technical description of this type of calorimeter, see Privalov 1980 Plotnikov et al. 1997 . ttis section is concerned with the case in which the sample is a diluted protein solution and the reference is the pure solvent buffer . Both cells...

The Effect ofa Mechanical Force on theThermodynamics and Kinetics ofthe Protein Unfolding Reaction

Manometry Thermodynamics

Considerations from ermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics Equilibrium vs. Nonequilibrium Unfolding Classical thermodynamics equilibrium thermodynamics or thermodynamics for short deals with quasistatic processes, which are idealized, infinitely slow processes that can be approximated in practice by performing them very slowly. ttus, thermodynamics is not concerned with the rate at which a process takes place i.e., kinetics . Time-dependent thermodynamic processes are studied by nonequilibrium...

Laurdan Probe the Tips

Generalized Polarization Laurdan

As is the case with the vast majority of UV-excited fluorescent probes, confocal or epifluorescence microscopy experiments are difficult to perform with LAURDAN. As already mentioned, the extent of LAURDAN photobleaching under epifluorescence and confocal microscopy is severe, making it almost impossible to collect images on LAURDAN-labeled specimens for more than a few seconds Bagatolli and Gratton 2001 . A way to circumvent this problem is by using two-photon-excitation fluorescence...

Trosy Cript and Crinept for Studies of Very Large Structures

With increasing molecular mass, most signal is lost during polarization transfer periods in heteronuclear NMR experiments where TROSY is not active. If the conventional polarization transfer element INEPT Morris and Freeman 1979 Burum and Ernst 1980 is replaced by CRINEPT Riek et al. 1999, 2002 and CRIPT Dalvit 1992 , the signal loss can be reduced. Using NMR experiments based on TROSY and CRINEPT or CRIPT, we can now investigate macromolecular systems with molecular masses up to 900 kDa by...

Creating and Dispensing Small Liquid Volumes

Simple Hydraulic System Syringes

Tte controlled dispensing of very small liquid volumes was first demonstrated by Elmqvist in the context of printing in the Siemens-Elema Minograf recording mechanism US patent 2,566,443, issued September 1951 . Important factors in the dispensing of small liquids volumes are - Dynamic range of the dispensed volume - Dispensing frequency determines throughput - Ease of operation and maintenance - General compatibility of surfaces and liquids compatible with labile compounds tte preferred size...