Proteins can be unfolded by applying a mechanical force using AFM in its SMFS mode. Ms imposes a specific reaction coordinate on the unfolding process (i.e., the end-to-end distance), ttese experiments are typically performed under nonequilib-
rium conditions. Depending on the variable being "clamped" (i.e., maintained constant), there are two basic modes currently being used: length-clamp (which yields a force-extension curve) and force-clamp (which yields an extension-time curve).
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