IVUS for Abdominal Aorta Aneurysm Analysis

Intravascular ultrasound images are proving their importance for coronary vessels. However, one should not think that cardiology is the only useful application of these images. Given their excellent properties (intraoperative images as well as providing morphological information about tissue structure and composition), IVUS images are generating increasing clinical interest in diagnosis and therapy of abdominal aortic aneurysms. It has been reported that determination of fixation sites and assessing dimensional information by cinefluoroscopy and angiography were limited by inaccuracies produced by image magnification, parallax, and uniplanar views. IVUS was used to determine the morphological features of vascular structures (i.e., calcium, thrombus), to perform real-time observation of the expansion of devices (e.g., graft), and to ensure firm fixation of balloon-expanded stents before the procedures of vascular anatomy were completed.

Three-dimensional reconstruction imaging technologies are particularly helpful in assessing the morphologic features of vascular anatomy before the intervention and at follow-up intervals. Moreover, three-dimensional IVUS provides a similar real-time perspective during the procedure [82]. Therefore, the problem of segmentation, three-dimensional reconstruction, and registration of fluoroscopy and IVUS images is relevant to the abdominal aorta aneurysm diagnosis and therapy. Figure 10.43 shows the result of applying deformable models (discriminant snakes) for segmenting IVUS images to obtain a spatial model of the abdominal aorta. Figure 10.44 and Figure 10.45 show the results of three-dimensional reconstruction of the abdominal aorta by segmenting IVUS and x-ray images and registration of their data. Both figures show the two x-ray projections with the segmented catheter trajectory on the left, and the three-dimensional model and the IVUS image on the right. The red point in the angiograms corresponds to the shown IVUS image on the right.

Abdominal Aneurysm Ivus
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