Approach To The Child In Heart Failure

Infants and children with serious cardiac pathology may present with breathlessness, cyanosis or cardiogenic shock. The immediate management of the latter is described in Chapter 10.

Table 9.5. Causes of heart failure which may present as breathing difficulties

Left ventricular volume overload or excessive pulmonary blood flow Ventricular septal defect Atrioventricular septal defect Persistent arterial duct Common arterial trunk

Left heart obstruction

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy Critical aortic stenosis Aortic coarctation Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

Primary "pump" failure Myocarditis Cardiomyopathy

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