Infants and children with serious cardiac pathology may present with breathlessness, cyanosis or cardiogenic shock. The immediate management of the latter is described in Chapter 10.
Table 9.5. Causes of heart failure which may present as breathing difficulties
Left ventricular volume overload or excessive pulmonary blood flow Ventricular septal defect Atrioventricular septal defect Persistent arterial duct Common arterial trunk
Left heart obstruction
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy Critical aortic stenosis Aortic coarctation Hypoplastic left heart syndrome
Primary "pump" failure Myocarditis Cardiomyopathy
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