Are you alright

The initial simple assessment of responsiveness consists of asking the child "Are you alright?", and gently shaking him or her by the shoulders. Infants and very small children who cannot talk yet, and older children who are very scared, are unlikely to reply meaningfully, but may make some sound or open their eyes to the rescuer's voice.

In case associated with trauma, the neck and spine should be immobilised during this manoeuvre. This is achieved by placing one hand firmly on the forehead, while one of the child's arms is shaken gently.

Figure 4.1. The overall sequence of basic life support in cardiopulmonary arrest (CPR = cardiopulmonary resuscitation)

Shout for help Approach with care Free from danger

Evaluate abc

Figure 4.2. The SAFE approach

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