Blood and Bone Marrow

4 Individual Cells 28

4.1 Light Microscopic Morphology and Cytochemistry 28

4.1.1 Cells of Erythropoiesis (Fig. 4a-f) 28

4.1.2 Granulocytopoiesis and Mast Cells (Tissue Basophils) 38

4.1.3 Degenerate Forms, Toxic Changes and Artifacts (Fig. 9 a-d) 44

4.1.4 Congenital Anomalies of Granulocytopoiesis (Fig. 10a-f) 46

4.1.5 Cells of the Monocyte-Macrophage System (Fig. 13 a-h) 54

4.1.6 Megakaryocytes (Fig. 15 a-e) 60

4.1.7 Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts (Fig. 16 a-f) 63

4.1.8 Lymphocytes and Plasma Cells (Fig. 17a-g) 66

5 Bone Marrow 69

5.1 Composition of Normal Bone Marrow 69

5.2 Disturbances of Erythropoiesis 80

5.2.1 Hypochromic Anemias (Fig. 23a-d) 80

5.2.2 Hemolytic Anemias 82

5.2.3 Megaloblastic Anemias 90

5.2.4 Toxic Disturbances of Erythropoiesis 96

5.2.5 Acute Erythroblastopenia 98

5.2.6 Chronic Erythroblastopenia (Pure Red Cell Aplasia) 101

5.2.7 Congenital Dyserythropoietic Anemias 101

5.2.8 Synartesis 105

5.3 Reactive Blood and Bone Marrow Changes 107

5.3.1 Agranulocytosis 114

5.3.2 Kostmann Syndrome 117

5.3.3 Thrombocytopenias and Thrombocytopathies 117

5.3.4 Pseudothrombopenia 117

5.4 Bone Marrow Aplasias (Panmyelopathies) 119

5.5 Storage Diseases 122

5.5.1 Gaucher Disease 122

5.5.2 Niemann-Pick Disease 125

5.5.3 Glycogen Storage Disease Type II (Acid Maltase Deficiency, Pompe Disease) 127

5.6 Hemophagocytic Syndromes 129

5.7 Histiocytosis X 132

5.8 Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders (CMPD) 134

5.8.1 Myeloid Leukemia and Transient Abnormal Myelopoiesis (TAM) of Down Syndrome (DS) 140

5.8.2 Special Variants of Megakaryocyte Proliferation 140

5.8.3 Familial Erythrocytosis (Fig. 48 a-c) Cytochemical Detection of Alkaline Phosphatase 143

5.8.4 Chronic Myeloid (Granulocytic) Leukemia 144

5.8.5 Chronic Neutrophilic Leukemia (CNL) 157

5.8.6 Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia (CEL) and the Hypereosinophilic Syndrome (HES) 157

5.9 Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS) 158

5.10 Acute Leukemias 180

5.10.1 Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) 183

5.10.2 Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) (Fig. 115 a-d) 265

5.11 Neoplasias of Tissue Mast Cells (Malignant Mastocytoses) 286

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