Natural Breast Enlargement
The presence of breast implants causes technical problems that impair the ability to detect breast cancer by mammography. The radiopaque implant blocks x-ray transmission, which limits the imaging of breast tissue. Implants compress breast tissue against the skin which can obscure a significant amount of anterior breast tissue on conventional mammographic images. Implants also diminish the compressibility of the breast, particularly if there is capsular contracture.
Analytic epidemiology deals with the concept of risk. The aim is to assess the strength of a possible association with a potential risk factor. A number of specific analytical study design options can be employed. As only some risk factors can be assessed by an interventional study (e.g. a controlled clinical trial) most analytical studies are based on an observational design a cohort or case-control studies. In a cohort study, subjects are classified by the presence or absence of exposure to a potential risk factor (e.g. silicon breast implants) and then followed for the development of the disease (e.g. systemic sclerosis). In a case-control study, a group of patients with the disease of interest (e.g. bullous pemphigoid) and a control group (e.g. without bullous pemphigoid) are compared for the proportions of the exposure of interest (e.g. number of malignancies). Risk in cohort studies is measured as relative risk and in case-control studies as Odds-ratio which is an approximation...
Less frequently, policies are advanced that may not be based on careful scientific consideration. For example, the 1975 campaign to immunize the American population against the swine flu was advanced without adequate consideration of the scientific evidence (Ibrahim 1985). Even though the policy was halted shortly after implementation, it led to substantial legal liability for the US government because of the potential link between swine flu vaccination and Guillain-Barre syndrome (Christoffel and Teret 1991). More recently, the ban on silicone breast implants in the United States and
Let's reflect on the consequences of not using controls. Who knows (or will admit) what executive or executive committee at Dow Corning first decided it wasn't necessary to do experimental studies on silicon implants because such studies weren't mandated by government regulations It's terrifying to realize the first epidemio-logical study of whether breast implants actually increase the risk of
Key words Phytoestrogens, PC12, acetylcholinesterase Estrogenic compounds isolated from plants are commonly known as phytoestrogens and are known to exert a positive impact on human health (Knight and Eden 1996 Lamartiniere et al. 1995 Deodato et al. 1999). Although their chemical structures are relatively different from each other, they show some structural similarity all contain a pharmacophore similar to that found in estradiol and diethylstilbestrol (Tham et al., 1998). Isoflavones are typical phytoestrogens that are found mostly in leguminous plants, particularly soybeans. Two major isoflavones found in soybeans are daidzein and genistein. In a previous study, Isoda et al. (2002) reported that genistein and daidzein enhance the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity of the rat neuronal cell line PC12 at concentrations as low as 0.08 M by binding to the estrogen receptor (ER). Results have shown that this enhancement was effectively blocked by the known estrogen receptor antagonist...
Clearly, freehand techniques require skill and experience from the brachytherapist. For this reason, this technique is less commonly used than the other image-guided techniques discussed in this chapter. This technique is still frequently used with augmentation mammoplasty where seeing the silicone surface as you guide each needle across the target volume is helpful in avoiding augmentation implant puncture and subsequent rupture. For the target volume not visible within the cavity at the right and left sides, however, it is much safer to have intraoperative ultrasound in order to avoid puncture.
In the author's clinic, those patients who are offered external beam PBI are usually women with large breasts or subareolar primaries, and favorable tumor factors such as older age, generous surgical margins 0.5 cm, and smaller tumors lacking EIC or lym-phovascular invasion (LVI).
Two series have shown that radiotherapy delivered after breast augmentation can lead to capsular contracture in 30 percent of patients. Although radiation following breast reconstruction is very well tolerated,134 135 the reported contracture rate for the general population is 5 to 10 percent. Subcutaneous implantation is associated with a higher risk of contracture than are subpectoral implants. Postmastectomy radiotherapy after transverse rectus abdominus myocutaneous (TRAM) flap breast reconstruction can be delivered effectively without cosmetic compromise.136
During the turbulent years leading up to and following World War II, the major question was whether only ovarian hormones such as progesterone and estrogen were the inducers and controllers of normal breast growth or were there other elements Lyons, in 1958, clearly defined the minimal hormonal growth requirements for normal mammary development in mice as being estrogen, adrenocortical steroids, growth hormone, and cortisol (Lyons, 1958 Lyons et al., 1958). Muhlbock in the Netherlands was particularly interested in the role of the pituitary in mammary gland physiology (Dux and Muhlbock, 1969a,b Muhlbock, 1956).
Domperidone can be obtained from some compounding pharmacies in the United States and from pharmacies in other countries but is not usually covered by health insurance providers. Domperidone, at doses from 10 mg to 30 mg by mouth (po) 4 times daily (qid) (also given 30 minutes before meals and bedtime), has been shown to significantly reduce GI symptoms and hospitalizations from gastroparesis, enhance quality of life, and accelerate gastric emptying of a solid meal. Domperidone does cause increased serum prolactin levels, and the most commonly reported side effects are gynecomastia in men and breast enlargement and lactation in women. These events occur in approximately 5 of treated patients.
Isoflavones are phytoestrogens, weak estrogenic substances found in plants. Isoflavones are most notably found in soy and red clover. The isoflavones that are found in soy are different from the isoflavones found in red clover. Sometimes manufacturers mix the different isoflavones into one product. For example, Rimos-til is a blend of isoflavones derived from red clover, while Estroven contains 55 mg of isoflavones derived from soy and another plant extract. Isoflavone products are available over the counter and are not subjected to the same Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations as prescription medications. of isoflavones and phytoestrogens in the prevention and treatment of bone loss.
As with the use of ultrasonography (Section 8.1.3), there also has been recent interest in using MRI to identify complications of breast implants, especially, leakage and rupture of gel-filled sili-cone implants (Brem et al., 1992 Gorczyca et al., 1992a Harms et al., 1992 Schneider and Chan, 1993). The combination of a T2 weighted fast spin-echo technique, T2 weighted fast spin-echo technique with water suppression, and T1 weighted spin-echo technique with fat suppression or, alternatively, a modified three-point Dixon (1984) technique may reliably differentiate silicone from native breast tissues, thereby, permitting identification of both extracapsular and many intracapsular ruptures and leaks (Gorczyca et al., 1992a 1992b Schneider and Chan, 1993). The relative efficacy of MRI versus ultrasonography has not been determined. However, ultrasonography is more readily available and considerably less expensive, while MRI is less operator dependent and has the imaging advantage of being...
If no old films are available to compare for asymmetries, the right breast is contrasted with the left, but fortunately, most patients today do have old films for comparison. Comparing each view with a previous study of the same breast is much more accurate than comparing the right to the left breast. The oldest mam-mogram of good quality is placed adjacent to the current studies. If the patient has had more than two studies, the most recent previous mammograms should also be compared with the current study. If the appearance of the breast has changed for any reason, whether from a biopsy, reduction or augmentation mammoplasty, or beginning estrogen replacement therapy, the first mammogram after the altering event becomes the new baseline ( oldest ) study. In pinpointing the location of a mass on the study, the radiologist faces the patient and regards each breast as though it were the face of a clock the location of the lesion corresponds to its time on this imaginary clock.
Epidemiology is an important science that might lead to relevant information on the frequency of a disease and the risk factors associated with a disease thus allowing the distribution of health care resources and the planning of preventive measures. An epidemiological study is only as good as the design it is based on. A stringent design tries to minimize bias and therefore errors in the interpretation of the results of a study. Study design is determined by the frequency of a disease. For rare diseases - such as cutaneous autoimmune diseases - the cross-sectional or case-control design will lead to the fastest results. If several studies with inconclusive or controversial results are available, different studies can be polled together in a meta-analysis which was shown for breast implants and CTD where cross-sectional studies, cohort studies and case control studies were analyzed together (Perkins et al. 1995).
Micronutrients such as zinc, selenium, vitamin E, lycopene, phytoestrogens, and phytosterols have been identified as potential chemopreventive agents for prostate cancer.48 Many of the implicated micronutrients have not yet been individually studied in Asians. However, there are two specific dietary components that deserve special consideration soy and tea. The soybean plant (Glycine max) is believed to be derived from Glycine ussuriensis, which grows wild in eastern Asia. It has been cultivated by the Chinese for at least 4500 years and today there are more than 2500 known varieties.49 Soy is a well-recognized source of the phytoestrogens also known as isoflavones. The intake of soy varies widely around the world. For example, in Taiwan the consumption is approximately 35 g per day.50 Average isoflavone intake in Asian cultures is approximately 50 mg per day, whereas the average consumption in the United States amounts to only 1 to 3 mg per day.51,52 Ironically, the United...
Magnetic resonance imaging is widely used to evaluate prosthetic implant integrity and can aid in differentiating an implant complication from an intramammary lesion.37,38 Dynamic, contrast-enhanced MR imaging shows promise for improved detection and monitoring of breast cancer in certain women with cosmetic breast augmentation or breast reconstruction using prosthetic implants.36
And further evaluation of clinical and mammographic findings, (2) guidance of interventional procedures, and (3) evaluation of problems associated with breast implants. 8.1.4 Ultrasound to Evaluate Complications of Breast Implants Ultrasound has been used for evaluation of complications of silicone implants, such as rupture or leakage. Extracapsular rupture, extrusion of silicone into the breast parenchyma and surrounding tissues, has a distinctive sonographic appearance echogenic noise or a snowstorm pattern, obliterating sono-graphic information located posterior to the silicone (Caskey et al., 1999 DeBruhl et al., 1993 Harris et al., 1993 Mendelson, 1992). Other findings in extracapsular rupture, usually of long duration, are silicone granulomas, angular, hypoechoic masses that can be palpable. One of the major roles for ultrasound in patients who have had breast augmentation is distinguishing between a paren-chymal lesion and an implant-related finding, such as a wrinkle or fold....
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