Cancer Subtyping

Tumor subtyping has been recognized to have independent prognostic significance in breast cancer.22 Ten to 30 percent of invasive ductal carcinomas are of a special type, many of which can be recognized on cytology preparations. Three of these were recognized by the 1990 National Institutes of Health (NIH) Consensus Conference as having a favorable prog-nosis—the tubular, colloid, and papillary variants.3 Each of these three patterns have cytologic correlates and are often classifiable on FNA (refer to Chapters 5 and 6). With the rapid expansion of molecular technologies, including the promising array-based formats (which may be used simultaneously to measure hundreds to thousands of genes or proteins from a breast cancer), subtyping based on gene expression will soon be possible.

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