Other Breast Imaging Modalities

Among the various imaging methods designed to evaluate the breast for cancer, conventional mammography is the most accurate and most widely used. It has gained clinical acceptance for screening because it may depict a cancer often before the tumor mass becomes large enough to be palpable. Conventional mammography is valuable in helping to distinguish benign from malignant lesions, facilitating prompt biopsy of cancers, while encouraging clinical management of many benign breast lesions. Digital...

Screen Film Combination

Radiology Intensifying Screens

The goal in screen-film mammography for mass screening and diagnosis is to produce consistently high-contrast, high-resolution, low-noise images at the lowest radiation dose consistent with these image-quality requirements. In recent years, there have been many significant technologic improvements in mammographic screen-film combinations AAPM, 1990 Haus, 1991 1999b KimmeSmith, 1991 Rothenberg and Haus, 1995 Yaffe, 1990 . Until the early 1970s, direct-exposure industrial type x-ray films were...

Grid

Dedicated mammographic units should be equipped with anti-scatter grids ACR, 1993 AHCPR, 1994 . Scattered radiation can cause a significant reduction in subject contrast in mammogra-phy resulting in impaired detection of calcifications and the outlines of tumor masses. The advent of specialized mammographic grids revolutionized the radiologist's ability to evaluate dense tissue Barnes and Brezovich, 1978 Chan et al., 1985 Dershaw et al, 1985 Egan et al., 1983 Friedrich and Weskamp, 1978 Jost,...

Info

System can be designed such that the dynamic range of the image receptor is very large so that recording of scattered radiation will not be a limiting factor. Under these conditions, only the third effect, the scatter contribution to random quantum noise, should be of any importance. 4.2.1.1.2 Grids for mammography. The use of specifically designed grids for mammography reduces the amount of scattered radiation detected and improves subject contrast. This is especially significant when imaging...

Usefulness of Mammography for Breast Cancer Screening

There is little, if any, opposition to the practice of diagnostic mammography, probably because of the compelling clinical need for the information obtained. Many mammography examinations are performed for diagnostic purposes, and mammographic screening programs have also been widely implemented. There has been some opposition to screening in the past for a variety of reasons 1 concern over a few published indications of a relatively unfavorable benefit risk ratio, 2 concern about exposure to...

Transillumination

Transillumination of the breast began in 1929 with the real-time viewing diaphanoscopy of the breast by a dark-adapted examiner Cutler, 1929 . The technique was found somewhat helpful in distinguishing cystic from solid lesions and, specifically, in suggesting the diagnosis of hematoma and retroareolar intraductal papilloma. After a period of initial interest, the technique lapsed into relative obscurity, only to be revived in France in the 1950s with the recording of hard-copy images...