Introduction

AM shares the same precursor, proadrenomedullin, with proadrenomedullin N-terminal 20 peptide (PAMP) (Kitamura et al., 1994) a compound showing physiological effects different from those of AM (Shimosawa et al., 1995 Shimosawa et al., 1996 Shimosawa et al., 1997). Several studies revealed that AM is a multipotent peptide (Kusaka et al., 1996 Ando et al., 1998 Taylor et al., 2001 Kawai et al., 2002) and a new tool for use in diagnosis of extracellular volume in renal insufficiency (Kanozawa et...

Factors Regula3ing Am Gene Expression

In vitro experiments using cultured cells have indicated that the production of AM is increased by the stimulation of cytokines such as inteleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor-cx (TNF-a) (Isumi et al., 1998). In clinical settings as well, plasma AM has been shown to be markedly elevated in patients with infectious or inflammatory disorders (Ishimitsu et al., 1999 Hirata et al., 1996). Considering that NF-IL6 has been shown to be induced by stimulation with IL-1, TNF-a and IL-6 itself,...

Origin of circulating adrenomedullin

AM was initially discovered in human pheochromocytoma by monitoring the cAMP activity in rat platelets (Kitamura et al.,1993a). AM mRNA is highly expressed not only in pheochromocytoma but also in normal adrenal medulla, kidney, lungs, and ventricle (Kitamura et al., 1993b). However, whether these organs secrete AM into circulation or not was not initially fully understood. To investigate the sites of production and clearance of AM in humans, we took samples of both arterial and venous blood...

Adrenal gland

The regulatory effect of AM on aldosterone production and secretion in zona glomerulosa (ZG) cells is also remains controversial. AM inhibits aldosterone production induced by angiotensin II (Andreis et al., 1997a), potassium (Mazzocchi et al., 1999), and Ca2+ ionophores (Yamaguchi et al., 1995) in dispersed ZG cells. In vivo, AM has been reported to prevent an increase in plasma aldosterone level induced by infusion of angiotensin II (Petrie et al., 2000), a sodium-deficient diet or bilateral...

References

Aiyar N, Rand K, Elshourbagy N A, Zeng Z, Adamou JE, Bergsma, DJ, and Li Y (1996) A cDNA encoding the calcitonin gene-related peptide type 1 receptor. J Biol Chem 271 11325-11329. Albertin G, Carraro G, Parnigotto PP, Conconi MT. Ziolkowska A, Malendowicz LK, and Nussdorfer GG (2003) Human skin keratinocytes and fibroblasts express adrenomedullin and its receptors, and adrenomedullin enhances their growth in vitro by stimulating proliferation and inhibiting apoptosis. Int J Mol Med 11 635-639....