How to stop cats spraying in the house

Cat Spray No More

Cat Spraying no more is a product that will guide the users on the way to prevent the various mess made by their cats. It is true that a cat that pees in the house can make their home smell like a litter box; it can be upsetting and stressful for the users and can become incredibly expensive if the users are forced to continually clean carpets and floors, or replace furniture. However, Cat Spraying No More is one that will help in the reduction of these problems because it will point the users towards the right things to do and what not to do as regards their cats. This product will stop their cat peeing and spraying outside the litter box for good. This professionally created and proven system will work whether their cat has just started peeing where they should not or if they've been doing it for years. This product is a cheap one that can be learnt by anyone. It comes with certain bonuses that will change the way the users see things as regards cat. They are Cat Training Bible, 101 Recipes for a Healthy Cat, The Cat Care Blueprint, Pet Medical Recorder Software. Read more...

Cat Spray No More Summary


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I started using this book straight away after buying it. This is a guide like no other; it is friendly, direct and full of proven practical tips to develop your skills.

When compared to other ebooks and paper publications I have read, I consider this to be the bible for this topic. Get this and you will never regret the decision.

Senior Health Practitioner The Jefferiss Wing St Marys NHS Trust

New Zealand-born Jane completed her Nursing Bachelor's degree in 1995 at Auckland Technical University. In 1999, after working in different acute medicine fields such as CCU and A & E at North Shore Hospital in Auckland, she left New Zealand to do what all good antipodeans do and see the world. Shortly after arriving in London she started working in the Jefferiss Wing at St Mary's Hospital and realised that she had found her ideal field of nursing. Over the last seven years she has worked as an agency nurse, Junior Sister and Nurse Practitioner, and for the last three years as the Senior Health Practitioner for the SHIP (Sexual Health Information and Protection) team. Jane is now happily settled in North-West London. She lives with her partner and two cats, and has a daughter due in August 2006.

Aseptic lymphocytic choriomeningitis

Astrovirus The only genus in the family Astroviridae, the type species of which is Human astrovirus 1. Named because some of the virus particles seen by electron microscopy in the feces of infants and patients with diarrhea have a distinctive five- or six-pointed star on the surface. Virions are 28-30nm in diameter, spherical and without an envelope. Density (CsCl) 1.36-1.39g ml. The genome is positive-sense single-stranded RNA, 6.8-7.9kb in length, with a 3' poly A tract which is infectious. A subgenomic polyadenylated RNA, 2.8kb in length, has been found in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Using immunoelectron microscopy and neutralization tests, at least eight serotypes of Human astrovirus and two serotypes of Bovine astrovirus have been defined. There are also species detected in feces from cats, ducks, pigs, ataxia of cats virus Synonym for Feline pan-leukopenia virus.

O tricuspis Leuckart 1865

O. skrjabini, O. suis) is a curious tiny, autoinfective trichostrongyloid found with its anterior end buried in the gastric crypts mainly of domestic cats but also of other felines such as lions, cheetahs, tigers and wild cats (Hasslinger, 1985 Rickard and Foreyt, 1992). It occurs less commonly in dogs and foxes. It also occurs in pigs (Mason, 1975 Volkov, 1983 Voronkova et al, 1985 Voronkova, 1986). Cameron (1927b) concluded from his experiments that transmission occurred by emesis or vomition. The parasite elicits a catarrhal condition in the stomach which encourages vomiting. Hungry cats readily consume the vomit of other cats and in doing so acquire the infection. Autoinfection can result in the build-up of a sizable population of worms in the host. Collins and Charleston (1972) reported 4500 worms in one cat and fatal infections have been reported in tiger cubs (Lensink et al., 1979). Hasslinger and Trah (1981) found an average intensity of 1500 in 542 cats and...

Clinical presentation

Children below the age of puberty are susceptible to scalp ringworm and anthropophilic fungi (from humans) have become common in some inner city areas. They can also be infected with zoophilic fungi (from animals), particularly cattle, dogs, and cats. Cattle ringworm can cause an intense inflammatory response in children, producing a kerion described below. They rarely develop anthropophilic fungal infection. Infection from dogs and cats with a zoophilic fungus (Microsporum canis) to which humans have little immunity can occur at any age. A patient returned from a skiing holiday with intensely itchy eczema , which refused to clear. A stray kitten, mewing outside in the dark, had been taken indoors, warmed in their sleeping bags, and infected the whole party with M. canis.

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy BSE

Sporadic cases occurred in, for example, France, Germany, Switzerland, Oman, Portugal, Italy and the Falkland Islands. Incubation period is 2-8 years. Can be experimentally transmitted to mice, pigs, cats and bovines. Natural infection is by the oral route. Believed to have originated by adaptation of sheep scrapie to cattle around 1981 2, and was exacerbated by feeding cattle-derived meat and bone meal to cattle. This was banned in 1988 and the epidemic is declining in the UK. See prion diseases.

Creutzfeldt Jakob disease CJD One of

The mode of natural transmission in humans is not known. There is no evidence of increased risk of developing the disease in health care workers. However, post-mortems should be conducted with extreme care. Disease can be transmitted to Old World and New World monkeys, cats, hamsters, guinea pigs and mice. The disease is caused by a prion, which has a very small size indicated by extreme resistance to irradiation. Very heat-resistant, some infectivity surviving 100 C. Not inactivated by formalin, alcohol or ether. Following the epidemic of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in the UK in the 1990s, a related disease with a distinct pathology has been detected in humans, and this has been termed new variant (nv) CJD. See prion diseases. Synonym transmissible virus-dementia virus.

Clinical Manifestations

Clinical signs are most frequently related to right-sided congestive heart failure and include tachypnea and dyspnea. Syncope can result from sustained ventricular tachycardia, but this finding is uncommon. Many cats are asymptomatic. Characteristic findings include severe RV enlargement with abnormally shaped trabeculae which are most evident in the apical RV cavity. Additional abnormal findings include right atrial enlargement, paradoxic ventricular septal motion, and localized RV aneurysm formation (i.e., akinetic or diskinetic areas with dias-tolic outward bulging) in the apical or subtricuspid region. Ventricular septal and LV wall thickness at end-diastole, LV end-diastolic and end-systolic cavity dimensions, and percentage of fractional shortening (in absence of paradoxic septal motion), are generally within normal ranges. In some cats left atrial enlargement may be present. Color-flow echo Doppler imaging usually demonstrates tricuspid regurgitation.

Characteristics Of Harmaline Tremor In The Laboratory

Although harmaline is readily absorbed from the gut, most studies have employed intraperitoneal, subcutaneous, or intravenous administration. Different investigators have used a wide harmaline dosing range (0.5-100 mg kg) to examine various aspects of olivocerebellar function. All mammals (e.g., mice, rats, rabbits, cats, monkeys) exhibit a readily perceptible tremor after receiving harmaline. In rodents and cats, a visible tremor is typically seen with dosages of 5 mg kg and greater. After intravenous administration of harmaline, latency to tremor onset is one to two minutes. After subcutaneous and intraperitoneal administration, latency is three to ten minutes. Tremor amplitude typically plateaus within ten minutes of onset. Tremor duration depends on route of administration and dosage and ranges from thirty minutes to three hours. Harmaline tremor frequency has been reported as 514Hz 11-14Hz (mice Milner et al. 1995), 8-12Hz (cats Lamarre and Mercier 1971), 4.7-7.6Hz (rhesus...

Plasticity of brain function

Blind cats are better at locating sounds than sighted cats the auditory part of the brain partially compensates for the defective vision. Similarly, blind people who learn to read braille have better tactile processing systems in their brains so have jewellers and others who perform fine manual work. A braille message activates a part of a blind person's brain that in sighted people responds to visual stimuli. (The information processing capacity of the visual channels is vast and alternative inputs cannot compensate fully, but the fact that there is any compensation at all is striking.) A congenitally deaf person reading sign language uses a part of the brain that is activated by speech sounds in hearing people. Mammalian brains retain such plasticity throughout life, though it might decrease with ageing.

Spontaneous Cardiovascular Disease in Animals

Cardiovascular disease occurs commonly in companion animals, particularly in domestic cats and dogs 1 . Myocardial disease represents a substantial portion of these disorders, many of which closely resemble cardiomyopathies in human patients 2 . Such disorders in cat, include hypertrophic 3,4 , dilated 5 , restrictive 6, 7 , and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathies (ARVC D) 8 . A heritable form of hy-pertrophic cardiomyopathy associated with a cardiac myosin binding protein C mutation has been recently reported in the Maine Coon cat breed 4 . In dogs, chronic myxomatous valve disease is the most prevalent cardiac disorder 9,10 , but cardiomyopathies occur frequently, particularly within certain medium and large-sized breeds 10 . Familial forms of dilated car-diomyopathy have been described in the Doberman Pinscher 11 , Irish wolfhound 12 , and Great Dane 13 , and a familial form of ARVC D has been reported in the boxer breed 14,15 . Dysplastic conditions of the right...

Animal Models Of Disease

There are no cellular or transgenic or knockout models of the disease. There are, however, several chemically induced animal models for ET. Acute exposure to the tremorogenic b-carboline alkaloids, such as harmane and harmaline, results in a generalized and intense action tremor in a broad range of laboratory species including mice, cats, and monkeys 88 . In human volunteers exposed to intravenous doses of 150-200 mg of harmine, neurological effects, including an acute coarse tremor, become apparent 89,90 . In animals, the tremor shares many features with ET including clinical features 91-93 pharmacological responsiveness to benzodiazepines, alcohol, and barbiturates, which facilitate gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated inhibitory neurotransmission 94-96 and underlying pathogenesis in cerebellar and GABAergic systems. The tremor-producing property of the beta-carbo-line alkaloids is related to their ability to enhance rhythmic firing in olivo-cerebellar neurons with secondary...

Far East Russian encephalitis virus

Felid herpesvirus 1 (FeHV-1) A species in the genus Varicellovirus. Cats which have recovered from infection with this virus may still carry it and infect kittens, in which it causes nasal discharge, lacrima-tion and fever. Virus replicates in the mucous membranes of the nose, larynx and trachea, also in the conjunctiva, and can infect the genital tract. In cats older than 6 months, the disease is mild or sub-clinical, though pregnant queens may abort. Causes similar clinical disease in wild felids such as cheetahs in captivity. Focal lesions are produced in cell cultures from cat kidney, lung and testis. There is no CPE in cultures of bovine, human or monkey cells.

Harbor seal picornalike virus SPLV An

Hardy-Zuckerman feline sarcoma virus (HZFeSV) A replication-defective species in the genus Gammaretrovirus. Obtained from multicentric fibrosarcomas in cats, and the result of recombination between Feline leukemia virus and various host oncogenes. HZFeSV strain 1 carries the transduced fes oncogene, and strain 2 the abl oncogene, both of which encode tyro-sine kinase. HZFeSV strain 4 carries the

Beginnings Cambridge Biochemistry Department 19521960

I then explored an in vitro bioassay based on the glucose uptake of rat diaphragm following an initial report by Groen in Amsterdam. This did yield results of interest, but the specificity of the method was clearly not straightforward - a problem more generally for bioassays for insulin in blood. It did, however generate results which attracted much interest at that time. The most interesting novel findings from my own studies in patients with this method were that plasma insulin activity is decreased in hypopituitarism and increased in acromegaly (excessive production of pituitary growth hormone) 1,2 . This was, perhaps, expected as it was known from the work of Houssay and others that sensitivity to the blood glucose lowering effect of insulin is enhanced in hypopituitarism and decreased by pituitary extracts in experimental animals and by pituitary hypersecretion of growth hormone in acromegaly in man. My mentor (Prof. F.G. Young) had achieved distinction for his work on the...

Origin Of Movementinduced Myoclonia

The brainstem hypothesis is in accordance with MIM clinical characteristics, which concern the proximal musculature the proximal musculature is mainly involved during activation of the reticulo-spinal motor system, whereas distal musculature is mainly involved during activation of the pyramidal system. Moreover, this hypothesis is in accordance with the presence, in the lower brain stem, of reflex centers responsible for the spino-bulbo-spinal reflexes observed in cats and monkeys under chloralose (Shimamura and Livingston, 1963 Shimamura et al., 1964), which can constitute the functional substrate responsible for MIM. Finally, this hypothesis is not in contradiction with the involvement of the different locations of receptors and networks involved in Papio papio MIM.

Neural Origin Of Harmaline Tremor

Perhaps independent of IO gap junctions, harmaline has been shown to increase both the auto- and cross-correlation of complex spike activity in the cerebellar cortex (Sasaki et al. 1989). Synchronous IO climbing fiber activity entrains Purkinje cells in the vermal portions of the cerebellar cortex and neurons in the cerebellar nuclei, red nucleus, and brainstem reticular formation resulting in an 8- to 12-Hz postural tremor (Lamarre and Mercier 1971 Llinas and Volkind 1973 Lamarre 1975 Lamarre 1984). After injection of har-maline into cats, selected portions of the IO complex, the medial accessory olive (MAO), and caudolateral parts of the dorsal accessory olive (DAO) increase their metabolic activity (Batini et al. 1981). In rats injected with harmaline, increased metabolic activity is seen only in the MAO (Bernard et al. 1984b). Because the MAO and DAO make up only a small percentage of IO volume, the limited resolution of human PET studies may explain some of the discrepancies...

Endoepidemic hemorrhagic fever virus

Nucleotide sequences have been found in all orders examined to date, including cartilaginous and bony fish. Endogenous viruses can be recovered from cells of humans and many other species, e.g. birds, mice, cats, pigs, baboons, etc. They often have a limited host range (N- or B-tropic) or may not replicate in the species from which they were isolated. Such viruses are called xenotropic or 'S'-tropic. See also human endogenous retro-viruses.

The Dawning Of Experimental Cancer Research

Egyptians who deified cats because they ate the mice who ate the grain. Thus, cat-like sculptures appear in Egyptian shrines. In spite of the distain for the mouse, the early western literature has mention of the mouse being used for auguries (fortune telling). They also showed up as part of medieval pharmaceutical potions. Consequently, mice were obviously kept by some groups of people and not considered completely useless. In fact, as Morse reminds us, mice were used as experimental animals and appear in published investigations including Priestly's (1775), who found, when placing mice in oxygen free chambers, that a mouse lived perfectly well but died the moment it was put into the other part (Morse, 1981).

Distribution of the two Mastomys species in Guinea and Lassa fever implications

Zone Calvet, pers. comm.), its absence from southern Guinea during the transect may result from a low sampling or a seasonality effect. Nevertheless, it is probable that M. natalensis, the most anthropophilic species, is able to follow humans into houses but not to colonise the surrounding true forest biotopes. The absence of Mastomys in Macenta is due to a trapping bias with only two habitats sampled for a night using a low number of traps. In a previous study in the Seredou and Macenta region, Roche (1971) found Mastomys in abundance. The absence of Mastomys in the Maikou village is quite surprising. Maikou was the smallest village sampled, situated in the Milo river floodplain. An explanation of the Mastomys absence could be that, after the flood season, Mastomys may not have had time to recolonize the village, or the predation pressure by domestic cats, which were very abundant, has removed rodents.

Subacute myeloopticoneuropathy virus

Suid herpesvirus 1 (SuHV-1) A species in the genus Varicellovirus. A natural infection, mainly of pigs, but cattle, horses, sheep, dogs, cats, foxes and mink are also susceptible. Endemic in pig populations throughout the world. In pigs the infection is usually silent, but in 5-10 the virus infects the tonsils from which it spreads to the CNS. There are nervous symptoms and fever but the pigs recover. Causes abortion in up to 50 of pregnant sows. In cattle, sheep and carnivores the disease is usually fatal, with intense pru-ritis (known as 'mad itch'). There are reports of infection in laboratory workers who developed aphthae of the mouth and local pruritis. Rabbits, guinea pigs and many other species are susceptible

Kasba virus Chuzan virus KASV A

Kawakami-Theilen strain of feline leukemia virus Isolated from a case of spontaneous lymphosarcoma in a Persian cat. Produces leukemia in kittens if injected when they are 1-2 days old but is not pathogenic in cats more than 5 months old. The development of antibodies prevents viremia and the induction of leukemia.

D MMTV and Molecular Oncology

Peter Duesberg and Peter Vogt demonstrated that transforming viruses such as RSV carried a longer strand of DNA than the helper chicken leukemia viruses (Duesberg and Vogt, 1970). Varmus and Bishop showed that RSV carried a gene, the src gene, that came from a segment of the chicken chromosome, proving that the oncogene was of cellular rather than viral origin (Stehelin et al., 1976). These findings provided the oncogene predicted in the Todaro-Huebner paper (Varmus, 1993). While RSV and src did not explain the other oncogenic viruses, RSV did inform the scientific community that they were looking for host genes (Varmus, 1993). When Varmus and Bishop demonstrated that the RSV sarcoma gene (src) was transduced from a gene normally found in chicken DNA, the race was on (Stehelin et al., 1976). The current list of oncogenes is largely based on genes of rats, chickens, and cats that were first identified in transforming retroviruses or identified as sites of insertional mutagenesis by...

How Many Genes

What about the genes in worms or flies which increase longevity At first sight, they seem to play a critical role in the ageing process, because changing one gene can increase lifespan by as much as 50 . This is very much like taking a complex machine, changing one component, and then finding the machine lasts twice as long as before. With regard to organisms, all sorts of possibilities exist. For instance, we know that reducing calorie intake extends lifespan in rodents. It is fairly easy to imagine a mutation which simply reduces the efficiency of digestion, thereby decreasing the intake of calories, and thereby having the long term effect of increasing lifespan. Alternatively, we can easily envisage genes which reduce fertility, and allow more resources to be diverted to maintenance. There could be genes that slow down metabolic rate, reduce the production of ROS, and as a consequence there is less damage inflicted on proteins and DNA. All these possible changes, and probably many...

Hosttargeted acaricides

Dogs and cats, with tick control lasting at least a month with a single application. A single topical application of fipronil to a mouse can kill ticks on the animal for up to 42 days (Maupin, 1999), reducing the need for frequent reapplication to the host. Theoretically, a single treatment at a bait box could render a white-footed mouse virtually tick-free and continue killing any ticks contacting the mouse for over a month. At the time of this writing, trials with a fipronil bait box have been expanded in Connecticut and the northeastern USA and a commercial version of the bait box may be available within a year or two.

Case Frozen Addicts Nova

Mptp Parkinson

In the subsequent years since MPTP was identified in humans as a Parkinsonian agent, researchers have demonstrated that MPTP exerts its neurotoxic effects in a number of other primates (Kopin and Markey 1988 Jenner 2003 Wichmann and DeLong 2003), as well as in cats, and in several rodents. In rodents, only specific strains of mice are sensitive to the administration of MPTP (Sundstrom et al. 1987 Riachi and Harik 1988 Mitra et al. 1994 Hamre et al. 1999). MPTP structurally resembles several known environmental agents, including well-known herbicides such as paraquat (Di Monte et al. 1986) and garden insecticides and fish toxins such as rotenone (McNaught et al. 1996) that induce dopamine cell degeneration (Brooks et al. 1999 Betarbet et al. 2000 Thiruchelvam et al. 2000 Chun et al. 2001). As such, it is possible, although as of yet unproven, that the genetic pathways and mechanisms that underlie the toxin-induced cell death of each of these compounds may interact.

Bovine hemadsorbing enteric virus

Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) A species in the genus Rhadinovirus. Isolated from cattle in Germany and the USA, and in UK and Africa from pulmonary adeno-matosis of sheep, but is probably not the cause of that condition. Cell-free transmission to cultures is possible, but animals are not infected by cultivated virus. Infection is probably by the respiratory route, but most contact experiments failed. May be a cause of minor respiratory disease in calves which predisposes them to bacterial disease of the respiratory tract, but in general the virus appears to be non-pathogenic. Viruses which appear to be strains of BoHV-4 have been isolated from cats and owl monkeys, and mistakenly reported as feline cell-associated herpesvirus and aotine herpesvirus 2, respectively. This might reflect contamination of biologicals used in virus isolation, such as bovine sera, by BoHV-4. Synonym movar herpesvirus.

Snowshoe hare virus Sshv A strain of

Sny der-Theilen feline sarcoma virus (STFeSV) A species in the genus Gammaretrovirus. Isolated from a feline fibrosarcoma and induces the tumor on inoculation into cats. Contains the transduced oncogene v-fes (expressing tyrosine kinase) which is also present in the Gardner-Arnstein feline sarcoma virus, and in the Hardy-Zuckerman feline sarcoma virus.

Human astrovirus 18 HAstV1 to

Human coronaviruses 229E and OC43 (HCV-229E and HCV-OC43) Species in the genus Coronavirus. Cause acute respiratory disease (common colds) in humans mainly from January to March. 229E virus was isolated in 1966 in human embryonic kidney cells from a medical student with a cold. OC43 virus was isolated in 1967 in organ culture from a patient with respiratory infection. Not always easy to isolate human tracheal organ cultures are probably the best method for primary isolations. The corona-like virus particles seen in feces and associated with diarrhea are difficult to isolate even in organ cultures. Strains have a common CF antigen but differences in antigenic structure can be demonstrated by neutralization tests and they belong to different coronavirus anti-genic groups. OC43 is antigenically related to mouse hepatitis virus and 229E is related to coronaviruses of pigs (TGEV) and cats (FECV). Some strains of OC43 virus agglutinate human and monkey erythrocytes at 4 C, and chicken, rat...

Physiology Of Stress And The Relaxation Response

The behavioral and physiological opposite of the fight-or-flight response is the relaxation response which is believed to be an integrated hypothalamic response that depresses SNS activity in a generalized manner. Forty years ago, Hess described this effect as the trophotropic response. By electrically stimulating the anterior hypothalamus of cats Hess was able to elicit signs of reduced sympathetic nervous system arousal including decreases in muscle tension, blood pressure, and respiration. This response was the opposite of what he termed ''ergotropic'' responses, which corresponded to the heightened state of SNS activity described by Cannon as the fight-or-flight response.

Testing Your Comprehension

By palpating the hind leg of a cat or dog or by examining a laboratory skeleton, you can see that cats and dogs stand on the heads of their metatarsal bones the calcaneus does not touch the ground. How is this similar to the stance of a woman wearing high-heeled shoes How is it different

Feline cellassociated herpesvirus FCAHV

Feline coronavirus (FcoV) A species in the genus Coronavirus. Antigenically related to porcine Transmissible gastroenteritis virus but infection with Transmissible gastroenteritis virus does not give immunity to infectious peritonitis. Cats of any age, leopards and other large cats are susceptible. Causes a gradual loss of appetite, Feline foamy virus (FFV) A species in the genus Spumavirus. Has been isolated from normal cats and from cats with various diseases in at least three continents. There are two serotypes. Not known to cause disease. Replicates in feline embryo cell cultures. Infected cells contain infectious proviral DNA of mol. wt. 6 x 106. Late in the course of infection, the provirus is integrated into the host cell genome. (FIV-P) A species in the genus Lentivirus, isolated in 1987 from cats with AIDS-like illness (feline AIDS). Probably an endemic infection of domestic cats throughout the world. Similar viruses have been isolated from wild felids (e.g. lion, puma,...

A braziliense de Faria 1910 A ceylanicum Looss 1911

A. ceylanicum is a parasite of the intestine of cats, dogs and humans in southeast Asia. Yoshida (1971a,b) confirmed the conclusion of Biocca (1951) and added new distinguishing characters to separate A. braziliense and A. ceylanicum. He also showed that the infective larva of A. ceylanicum was significantly longer (712.1 15.0 mm) than that of A. braziliense (662.1 17.0 mm) but was indistinguishable from the third-stage larva of A. duodenale (719.3 23.1 mm). Wijers and Smit (1966) infected eight volunteers cutaneously with A. ceylanicum. All acquired itchy papular eruptions at the site of larval penetration and abdominal discomfort began 15 20 days postinfection. The prepatent period was 21 days. Bearup (1967) gave the prepatent period as 24 days and Yoshida et al. (1972) as 18-26 days in humans. Rep (1965) and Yoshida (1968) reported prepatent periods of 14-17 days in dogs and cats. A. caninum is a common cosmopolitan hookworm of the intestine of dogs and other canids. It was once...

Peri Infarct Depolarisations PIDS

In open-skull animal models of stroke, it is usually necessary to leave electrodes at a fixed location rather than probing different cortical areas sequentially, and it is also not possible to determine the extent of propagation of a presumed PID wave with one or more electrodes in the cortex. The use of a method that acquires sequential images of the exposed core and penumbral areas offers a solution if the variable being imaged is affected by the pathophysiology. When illuminated with fluorescent light at 370 nm, the cortex will fluoresce blue, emitting light in the range 445470 nm the fluorochrome responsible is the reduced species of the nic-otinamide adenine dinucleotide redox couple (NAD NADH), the coenzyme for succinic dehydrogenase in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Only NADH - the reduced species - fluoresces, so that oxidation of the couple leads to a fall in fluorescence, whereas reduction causes an increase. Interpretation of such images needs to take account of the...

Mice and

Fibroblast Cells From Mammal

Striking variables often relate directly to time. For example, the gestation period for an elephant in 640 days, whereas for a mouse it is 20 days. Also, the time to reach reproductive maturity varies enormously, as does the rate and number of offspring produced in a beneficial environment. As we all know, temporal differences extend to maximum longevities. For a mouse, this is about 3 years for man it is close to a century. It is often said that one year in a dog is life is roughly equivalent to seven in a man or woman's life, but that does not apply to development to the adult, which in relative terms, is far more rapid in the dog. Also, from the keeping of pets, it is well known that the signs of ageing in a dog or cat, are not obviously dissimilar to those in a human. Old animals move more slowly, lose muscular strength, skin changes may affect coat colour or density, cataracts can develop and hearing may diminish. The internal changes are comparable too, and a good example is the...

Cortical Spreading Depression

Cortical Spreading Depression

It has long been clear that CSD is more readily induced - and its repetition maintained - in rats than in larger experimental animals 5 , with primates seen as the most ''resistant'' group of species. However, it is certainly possible to induce CSD in the primate brain 78 . A specific attempt to compare PID frequency in cats and squirrel monkeys after MCAO showed that PIDs do indeed occur spontaneously in a primate species, but failed to confirm a species difference in frequency of PIDs because of wide variability within both species 79 . However, the results revealed a clear dependence of PID frequency on plasma glucose level this is discussed below in the context of PIDs.

Medical Microbiology and Public Health

Dimitri Novich Mendeleiev

The mites can be transferred directly from person to person or by means of bedding or clothing used by itchy persons. Sarcoptes scabiei can also affect cats, dogs, horses, cattle, pigs, and wild animals, but the condition is generally referred to as mange. The itch mite, however, was regarded as an interesting curiosity rather than an example that might apply to other diseases.

Feline infectious peritonitis virus FIPV

Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) A species in the genus Gammaretrovirus. A common infection of cats causing leukemia and or sarcomas. Depresses immune system leading to a variety of opportunistic infections. Virus replicates in cells of feline, human, canine and pig origin. The viruses replicate in feline fibroblast cells in vitro and are classified into subgroup A, B or C according to their interference patterns in vitro. Subgroup A viruses are restricted to growth in feline cells, whereas subgroup B and C viruses will also grow in canine, human or mink cells. Replication is not cytopathic and virus can be propagated for long periods in feline fibroblast cells. Persistently infected cats shed virus in saliva, urine and feces and young kittens are easily infected up to 4 months old. A majority of infected cats shed virus for up to 3 months before developing neutralizing antibody, but up to 5 of cats remain persistently infected and shed virus for a few years before disease develops. Over...

Fluorouracil See base analog

Flury LEP virus A fixed strain of Rabies virus. Isolated in 1939 from a girl named Flury who contracted the disease in Georgia, USA. Brain tissue was injected into day-old chicks, subsequently passaged in chick brain and later in eggs. LEP stands for low egg passage, i.e. less than 80 times. Has been used as live vaccine for dogs but is insufficiently attenuated for use in cats and cattle. Can be propagated in human diploid cell lines and in BHK21 cells. foamy viruses Members of the genus Spumavirus which cause a foamy appearance of the cells in which they replicate. Often found in primary tissue cultures, especially following prolonged passage. Usually cause persistent infections in their natural host. There are simian and hamster species similar to the syncytial viruses of cattle, cats and humans. Isolated from chimpanzees and orangutans. No confirmed association with disease in humans. 'Human' foamy virus is the result of rare zoonotic transmission from non-human primates, and is...

Chimpanzees begin training for space flight

In the early days of the AMFL, a colony of around 40 chimpanzees had been living in three buildings in a part of the laboratory known as the Vivarium. Prior to the importation of the chimpanzees, the Vivarium had been home to an eclectic group of research animals - a few bears, a number of hogs, cats, dogs, fish, frogs, rats and mice.

Atom Pairs and Topological Torsions

Other descriptors based on similar ideas include, for example, the CATS (Chemically Advanced Template Search) descriptors Schneider et al. 1999 . The Similog keys extend the approach to triplets of atoms and their topological distances with each atom being described by the presence or absence of the

Amyloid and Association with Diabetes

The time course of the appearance of pancreatic amyloid mirrors the appearance of clinical diabetes (Ohsawa et al., 1992). A relatively restricted number of mammalian species exhibit a propensity to form amyloid in pancreatic islets these are the same species that are susceptible to type 2 diabetes. In addition to humans (Westermark, 1972) and macaque monkeys (Clark et al., 1991 de Koning et al., 1993 Howard, 1988), islet amyloid is found in domestic cats (Betsholtz et al., 1990 Westermark et al., 1987b) as well as in tigers, lions, lynx, raccoons (Jakob, 1970), and cougars (Johnson et al., 1991b). It is not found in islets of dogs or other members of the Canidae (wolf, jackal, fox) (Jakob, 1970). Except for Octodon degu, which is a special case (Hellman et al., 1990), amyloid is not found in the islets of rodents. However, human islets transplanted into mice form amyloid (Westermark etal., 1995), suggesting that it is a species-specific characteristic of the peptide itself that leads...

Good Hunting

4 The last record of capture was 1662. The dodo made poor eating, and its demise was probably due to introduced pigs, although cats, dogs, horses, goats, mongoose and crab-eating macaques cannot have helped, see Anton Gill and Alex West (2001) Extinct, Channel 4 Books, London Graeme Caughley and Anne Gunn (1996) Conservation Biology in Theory and Practice, Blackwell Oxford.

Pre Existing Interconnecting Arterioles and Collateral Circulation

Rapidly to critical coronary stenosis. Morphological studies of coronary vessels in different species have shown that while rats, rabbits, and pigs have anatomical end arteries with no arteriolar connections, dogs and cats are well endowed with these vessels and guinea pigs hearts exhibit a truly abundant arteriolar network (2). The normal human heart has fewer interconnecting arterioles than a dog heart (3,4). Pigs have a very limited innate collateral circulation, with only sparse endocardial connections however, dogs have numerous, generally epicardial, innate anastomoses, which are thought to have greater potential for development than those of pigs (5). This difference has resulted in a preference for the pig model for angiogenesis studies.

Hemorrhagic septicemia virus of fish

Hendra virus (HeV) An unclassified species in the family Paramyxoviridae, related to Nipah virus but distinct from other paramyxoviruses by genetic analysis and extended host range. Formerly called equine morbillivirus, but now known to be a virus which primarily infects large fruit bats, Pteropus sp, and is not a morbillivirus. Caused a serious outbreak of acute respiratory disease in the Hendra stables, near Brisbane, Queensland, Australia in 1994 in which 14 horses and their trainer died. A sta-blehand was also infected and hospitalized, but survived. In 1995 a second human death, this time from encephalitis, occurred in Mackay, Queensland in a man who had helped in a post-mortem examination of two horses one year earlier. Experimentally, Hendra virus has produced disease in cats, guinea pigs and horses, but not in mice, rabbits, chickens or dogs. The incubation period in horses is 8-11 days. There is depression, loss of appetite, fever, labored respiration, followed by substantial...

Animal Models

Spontaneous animal models of ARVC D found in domestic cats 30,31 and boxer dogs 32 have been described. The combined clinical profile (sudden death, ventricular arrhythmias of suspected RV origin, and syncope) and pathological abnormalities (RV chamber enlargement and aneurysms, RV my-ocyte loss and fatty replacement, myocarditis, and apoptosis) provide compelling evidence for spontaneous heart disease in animals closely resembling the human condition of ARVC D. The frequent occurrence of myocarditis and apoptosis also in animal models has suggested that both these processes are involved in the pathogenesis of ARVC D.

Sensory Studies

Sensory studies are very important to the food industry. Chemical composition will influence taste, texture, appearance and so on. How can we relate, for example, chromatographic peak heights to taste Often a taste panel is set up and their results are calibrated to analytical chemical measurements. Hence from analysing a batch, we can make predictions about the market acceptance. Niche markets are also important. For example cat foods might appeal to specific breeds or ages of cats, and a very targeted product can fill a gap. Can one identify a blend that Siamese cat kittens specifically like


Progressive atrophy of the RV myocardium with fibrous and or fatty replacement are common sequelae of ARVC D in cats 8 , dogs 15 , and humans 30-32 . Gap junction remodeling 33 secondary to altered mechanical coupling may promote arrhyth-mogenicity. Autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive forms of human ARVC D have been related to mutations in desmoplakin. Moreover, abnormalities in genes encoding for cell junctional proteins including plakoglobin, desmoplakin, plakophilin and desmoglein are the focus of increasing attention. Because desmosomes (organized intercellular junctions) lend cell mechanical integrity and stability, impaired function of cell adhesion junctions during shear stress may promote inflammation, myocyte detachment, myocyte death, and fibrolipomatous repair 34 . Abnormal myocardial structure and function are accelerated by myocarditis, programmed cell death, and fibrous and fatty infiltrates. Apoptosis is present in a high percentage of felines with ARVC D 8...

Scalp and face

Scalp ringworm in children may be caused by anthropophilic fungi such as Trichophyton tonsurans, which is spreading in cities in the United Kingdom, or Microsporum audouinii. Sporadic cases are caused by M.canis which is acquired from cats or dogs. In all cases there is itching, hair loss, and some degree of inflammation which is worse with M. canis infections.

Harmaline Tremor

The pathophysiology and etiology of ET are poorly understood. The drug harmaline has been shown to produce a generalized tremor at frequencies of 5-14Hz in rodents, rabbits, cats, and primates by producing oscillatory firing of neurons within the inferior olive (IO). Harmaline-induced tremor has been proposed as a model for ET (Poirier et al. 1966 Llinas and Volkind 1973 Lamarre 1975, 1984 Batini et al. 1981 Bernard et al. 1984b). ET and harmaline tremor share numerous similarities and, as such, the latter may be a useful tool for understanding and treating the former.

Piaget and cognition

Accommodation is almost the other side of the coin to assimilation. It means changing or modifying an existing way of thinking to take into account new information or input. In the example of the cat and the dog, the child will soon accommodate to other refinements not only the difference between cats and dogs but also the differences between cats and kittens, domestic cats and wild cats, and so on. All of the balances that develop in thought, including the processes of assimilation and accommodation, are upset when a new stage is reached.


Klemm et al. (1993) reported one of the first models of involuntary lid closure by electrically stimulating premotor inputs to the facial nucleus. They implanted stimulating electrodes into the facial nucleus, parabrachial region, red nucleus, interstitial nucleus of Cajal, the sensory nucleus of V, and into the reticular nuclei, ventral reticularis pontis oralis, reticularis parvocellularis, and reticularis centralis ventralis of cats. Although stimulation parameters in this study were extreme by current standards, single pulse 50 or 10 ms duration electrical stimuli consistently produced stimulus-linked lid closure at only four sites. Single stimuli delivered to the facial nucleus, as well as to three premotor blink areas, the parabrachial region, red nucleus, or interstitial nucleus of Cajal evoked a single unilateral lid closure. Stimulus trains of 10-50Hz at these sites produced sustained lid closure. All lid closures were ipsilateral to the stimulation sites except for the...

Family Dracunculidae

The development and transmission of the human guinea worm were first outlined by Fedchenko in a justly celebrated paper published in 1871 when he was only 27 years of age he died 2 years later in a climbing accident on Mont Blanc. A reproduction of his paper appeared in 1971 in the American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (Fedchenko, 1871b) on the occasion of the centenary of its publication. Several authors have made major contributions to our knowledge of the general biology of D. medinensis, namely Moorthy and Sweet (1936, 1938), Moorthy (1938a,b), Onabamiro (1954, 1956,) and Muller (1968, 1971). D. medinensis is readily transmissible to dogs, cats and a number of non-human primates (Muller, 1971). For recent reviews of dracunculiasis in Ghana, see Hunter (1996, 1997a,b). The development of D. medinensis has been followed in dogs, cats and rhesus monkeys (Moorthy and Sweet, 1938 Onabamiro, 1956 Muller, 1968). Muller (1968) found larvae in the duodenal wall 13 h after...

Ivan Ivanovich flies

Ciees Hammaguir

Rats and cats and pig-tail monkeys Earlier balloon flights into the upper atmosphere had tested the effects of cosmic rays on rats and cats while significant post-war progress in aeronautics and data recording systems had allowed researchers to obtain a better understanding of human physiology and dynamic stresses on pilots in the air. Drawing their inspiration from related experiments in the United States and the Soviet Union, French scientists became increasingly interested in the effects of weightlessness and cosmic radiation, seeking a better understanding of the impact these and other issues might have on warm-blooded creatures before human beings could venture into space. Staged photograph showing the vests used by the cats and rats in the French biological rocket flights. (Photo courtesy Dr. G. Chatelier, CERMA) Despite the loss of two of three rats, it was decided that the animal flight programme using Veronique rockets would continue while the Vesta was undergoing...

The Acute Illness

Drawings Schizophrenic Patients

Figure 1.15 Cats, by Louis Wain (1860-1939). Wain was a British artist who became famous for his drawings of cats. He was a patient at the Bethlem Hospital in the 1920s. Paintings such as these, which are suggestive of disorganization, visual perceptual disturbances and abnormalities of affect, have been taken as illustrative of his psychological decline, although more recent scholarship suggests that they were not out of keeping with contemporary design practice. Reproduced with kind permission of the Bethlem Royal Hospital Archives and Museum, Beckenham, Kent, UK Figure 1.15 Cats, by Louis Wain (1860-1939). Wain was a British artist who became famous for his drawings of cats. He was a patient at the Bethlem Hospital in the 1920s. Paintings such as these, which are suggestive of disorganization, visual perceptual disturbances and abnormalities of affect, have been taken as illustrative of his psychological decline, although more recent scholarship suggests that they were not out of...

Animal Bites

Using aerobic and anaerobic cultural methods, Goldstein et al. (37) evaluated 27 dog bite wounds and isolated 109 organisms, 87 aerobes, and 22 anaerobes. All positive cultures yielded multiple organisms, most were potential pathogens. P. multocida was recovered from 7 of 27 wounds (30 ), and the most common aerobes were the alpha-hemolytic streptococci and S. aureus. Anaerobes were present in 41 of wounds and included Bacteroides and Fusobacterium spp. Similar data were found in other animal bites (cats, squirrels, other rodents, and rattlesnakes) (17). Brook evaluated 21 children who had animal bites, 17 from dogs and four from cats (32). Aerobes only were isolated from five children (24 ), anaerobic bacteria only from 2 (10 ), and mixed aerobic and anaerobic isolates from 14 (66 ). A total of 59 isolates (2.8 specimen) 37 aerobes (1.8 specimen) and 22 anaerobes (1.0 specimen) were recovered.

The Medical Papyri

Since the Egyptians made mummies of humans and other animals, they had the opportunity to study comparative anatomy. Archaeologists have discovered the skeletons or mummies of lions, baboons, ibis, fish, cats, dogs, and crocodiles in tombs and special cemeteries. Nevertheless, despite centuries of experience with mummification, Egyptian anatomical concepts remained rudimentary. The embalmers, who belonged to a special guild of craftsmen, were not practicing physicians or disinterested scientists. Even the embalmers seem to have been ambivalent about the task of opening the body. As part of the ritual that preceded this act, a man called the scribe drew a mark along the flank. The man who actually made the incision was symbolically abused and driven away with stones and curses.

Conduct Disorder

Mike is a sixteen-year-old boy whose ADHD diagnosis describes only a small portion of his chronic difficulties. He has been getting failing grades in most of his high school courses for the past two years since he moved into a new foster home placement. Often he cuts classes or just doesn't show up for school. Mike has been in foster care since he was seven years old he is currently in his fourth placement. Each of his previous placements has ended because of serious behavior problems, for example, bullying younger children in the household, torturing pet cats in the neighborhood, and repeatedly stealing money from the foster parents.

Curious Phenomenon

This would eventually lead to the inclusion of many living specimens on high-altitude balloon and rocket flights. Rats, cats, dogs, mice, rabbits, hamsters, guinea pigs, goldfish, frogs, chickens and monkeys - all would participate in high-altitude balloon flights that benefited researchers in the development of protective pressure suits and breathing apparatus, and help scientists investigating potentially detrimental effects of cosmic rays on the living tissues of both human and animal subjects. Results of other flights varied. Balloon or equipment failures were the norm, resulting in the loss or death of biological specimens, ranging from fruit flies, black mice, white mice and hamsters through to a number of cats and dogs. On subsequent histological examinations of surviving animals, no evidence of tissue damage was found. A number of albino mice were flown to determine if cosmic radiation might cause cataracts to develop on the rodents' super-sensitive eyes. No evidence of this...


Acinonyx jubatus the cheetah, a carnivore that has the distinction of being the world's fastest land animal. Cheetahs are of genetic interest because, while most other species of cats show heterozygosity levels of 10-20 , cheetahs have levels close to zero. This high degree of homozygosity is correlated with low fecundity, high mortality of cubs, and low disease resistance.

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