Acriflavine A photoreactive dye See photodynamic inactivation

acronym (Greek: acro = extreme, onoma = name) A special case of sigla, frequently used in virology. A word created from the initial letters of the principal words in a compound term. See CELO virus and echovirus as examples.

acrylamide A chemical which is polymerized using a cross-linking agent to give polyacrylamide, one of the most commonly used supports for gel electrophoresis.

actidione Synonym for cycloheximide.

actinomycin D An antibiotic produced by the fungi Streptomyces chrysomallus and S. antibioticus. Inhibits DNA-dependent RNA transcription. Interacts with the guanine residues of helical DNA. Not readily reversible by removal of drug from the culture medium. Blocks interferon production by inhibiting mRNA

synthesis. Most single-stranded RNA viruses are not significantly affected by the drug at concentrations of 1-5^g/ml, which inhibit host cell DNA-dependent RNA transcription; influenza viruses and retroviruses are notable exceptions. Synonyms: dactinomycin; meractino-mycin.

activator A protein which binds to DNA upstream of a gene and activates transcription of that gene. Now usually called a transactivator.

active immunity Immunity induced by injection of virus or virus subunit antigens.

Acurene virus A probable species in the genus Orbivirus, isolated from phle-botomine sandflies in the Amazon region of Brazil. Antigenically related to Changuinola virus. Not reported to cause disease in humans.

acute anterior poliomyelitis virus Synonym for Poliovirus.

acute epidemic gastroenteritis virus of humans Synonym for Norwalk virus, the type species of the genus 'Norwalk-like viruses' in the family Caliciviridae. Causes diarrhea and vomiting in children and adults. There are at least seven related caliciviruses in the group: Hawaii, Desert Shield, Lordsdale, Mexico, Norwalk, Snow Mountain and Southampton. Virus particles are 27nm in diameter, and are ether- and acid-stable. Found in the feces originally only by electron microscopy, but now detected and distinguished using PCR. Antibodies can be demonstrated in patients. The virus is very difficult to propagate in vitro. See also gastroenteritis viruses of humans.

Estes MK and Hardy ME (1995) In Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract, edited by MJ Blaser et al. New York: Raven Press, p. 1009 Fankhauser RL et al (1998) J Inf Dis 178, 1571 Talal AH et al (2000) J Med Virol 61,117

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