Acute respiratory distress syndrome

(ARDS) A fulminant lung alveolar and interstitial edema, which develops rapidly, due to increased capillary permeability. One instance, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, is caused by Sin Nombre virus, but there may be other viral or bacterial causes of this disease syndrome.

acyclic nucleoside analogs A series of antiviral compounds active against various species in the family Herpesviridae. They include acyclovir, bucyclovir, ganci-clovir, penciclovir and 2HM-HBG.

de Clercq E (1995) Rev Med Virol 5, 149

acyclic nucleoside phosphonates A series of antiviral compounds active against a wide range of DNA viruses. They include HPMPA, HPMPC, PMEA, PMPA and PMPDAP.

acycloguanosine 9-(2-hydroxyethoxy-methyl) guanine A nucleoside analog. An antiviral agent with a potent and highly specific action against Human herpesvirus 1, 2 and 3 both in vitro and in animal models of skin, eye and brain infections. It is only weakly active against Human herpesvirus 5. The drug is selectively phosphorylated by herpesvirus-induced thymidine kinase, and once phosphorylated is a potent inhibitor of herpesvirus-induced DNA polymerase. In a clinical study, 24 patients with dendritic corneal epithelial ulcers were treated by minimal wiping debridement, 12 then receiving the drug topically as eye ointment, the others being given a placebo. Seven of the placebo patients showed recurrence of herpetic corneal lesions within a week. There was no recurrence in the patients receiving acy-cloguanosine. Acute toxicity studies have shown that the drug has a very low toxi-city. Acyclovir-resistant mutants with an altered DNA polymerase may arise during prolonged treatments. The drug does not affect latent herpesviruses, so recurrence after treatment is possible and has been described.

Synonyms: Wellcome 248U; aciclovir; acyclovir; Zovirax.

Elion GB (1989) Science 244, 41

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